Emotional intelligence, a form of social intelligence encompasses an individuals capability to monitor their own and others emotions; using that information to guide their actions or thinking (Salovey & Mayer, 1990). In everyday encounters, we are consistently intermingling with other members of society. These encounters have a major effect on our emotions; which is why beginning as an infant we must learn to identify and mange our emotions as they have an unswerving effect on how we handle stress in our lives. Early researchers such as Ashkanasy et al., (2002) focused themselves solely on the mental aspects involving problem-solving and memory; while others have identified the significance of other non-mental perspectives.Emotional intelligence is not only associated with personality, but is also worried with an individuals capability to identify causes, or consequences of their emotions and others. A great deal of effort has been utilized in analyzing and measuring emotional intelligence among juveniles. One such effort addresses training for adolescents beginning as early as Preschool.
Those adolescents who are deprived of emotional self-control become unsuccessful in developing matured EI (Emotional Intelligence). Therefore, the focus of this capstone project will be on (1) examining and identifying the role/effects emotional intelligence has on juvenile criminality among factors of sex, age, race, parental marital status, school and any predictors of prior detainment for delinquent offense of violent or non-violent crime, and (2) the necessity of implementing a curricula of emotional intelligence within schools to produce positive outcomes not only in youth, but adults as well to become successful business managers and leaders in the world. IntroductionEmotional intelligence encompasses an individuals capability to determine how efficiently one can reason, perceive and manage their own emotions, and the emotions of others. A few researchers propose that emotional intelligence can be taught and assured. Peter Salovey & John Mayer were two researchers who constructed the idiom Emotional Intelligence back in the early 90s. Harvard theorist, Howard Gardner informed his readers of the five categories of emotional intelligence such as: self-regulation, motivation, empathy, social skills, and self-awareness, all which solely emphasizes extra on individualism and contact with other individuals (Goleman, 2006).
Research has also been able to portray emotional intelligence as a vital position within an individuals job or school performance, motivation and decision making in everyday encounters. Salovey and Mayer (1990) anticipated that while emotional intelligence may be detached from cognitive ability, it can still be found connected to general intelligence. Within the emotional intelligence model of Mayer & Salovey (1997), it consists of four branches of abilities such as: perception of emotion, emotional facilitation, understanding emotions and management of emotions. Ordered from least to greatest, these branches have the tendency to develop maturely as an individual goes through life. However, Baron (2006) had his own mixed model of emotional social intelligence. Within this combined model, Baron prophesized that emotional social intelligence not only requires an individual to be able to know themselves and other members of society, but also how to overcome environmental requests or problem-solving life changing circumstances. Moreover, in measuring emotional intelligence John Mayer & Peter Salovey implemented a test known as MSCEIT (Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test). This test measured the four branches through multiple tasks consisting of approximately one hundred and forty-one items (Mayer, Salovey, Caruso, Sitarenos, 2003). Even though researchers have found this test to be reliable across time and produces consistent scores; it lacks in its ability to measure emotional regulation skills which has been deemed significant (Bracket & Mayer, 2003).
Consequently, even though insight of emotions, and comprehending emotions have been measured; researchers face a gap within their research due to no conceptual base in examining the connection of self-reported and ability measure of emotional intelligence. What is the Problem of Emotional Intelligence?Caruso (1999) deemed that emotional intelligence is not just some substitution for information or skills to get a job, nor does it fully pledge to grant an individual success through boosted training. Yet, in the article of Lam & Kirby (2002) those individuals with high levels of emotional intelligence werent deadlock by fear, robbed by negative emotions or even suppressed by concern as these factors produced negative feedback on team and individual presentation. Aggression repeatedly characterized as destructive spiteful behavior toward others, appears to oppose the empathetic nature of emotional intelligence. Therefore, one may forecast that emotional intelligence will be depressingly linked with aggression and promotes an increase in juvenile criminality. As learned by Steinberg & Cauffman (1996), hormonal changes during adolescence become impetuous and selfish at the early stages of puberty. Indeed, adolescents dont always make the best decisions; thus, leading to higher rates of delinquency particularly during the adolescence years. Reported from the FBI Uniform Crime Report in 2016, approximately 21.9% juveniles were arrested for property crimes, while 23% was due to violent crimes such as arson or high-value theft.
Shockingly enough, black or African-American Juveniles were committing more robbery crimes compared to any other ethnic grouped. Yet, more white juveniles were reported to having drug abused violations compared to Blacks (17, 107), American Native (1,242) or Asian (917). Emotional intelligence is a new construct, but it can be traced back in the 1920s. While high levels of emotional intelligence may deem to be more beneficial; low levels have the capacity to construct identifiable discrepancies. In the journal article of laley & long (1999), these researchers discussed how juveniles with low levels of emotional intelligence struggle to understand situations from different perspectives among others, making them less sympathetic. Therefore, upon research, it was hypothesized that low levels of emotional intelligence promoted criminality in juveniles; as those who have high levels of emotional intelligence can moderate their emotions and are less easily to give in to their pressures. Moreover, juveniles with high emotional intelligence are more inclined to follow rules of society, which shows that they understand that certain behaviors are frowned upon and frightens others.Initially, IQ (Intelligence quotient) was assumed to account for possibly twenty-five percent of how well individuals perform professionally, but it was later recanted as it was measuring approximately ten percent of an individuals performance.
Being the most widely considered personality quality in society today, pregnant women are persuaded to read and play music for their fetus while in the womb which helps to stimulate their brain cells. Geniuses like Albert Einstein have been awarded and recognized for their brilliant minds which determined success in their life. Yet, even with all these measured tests such as IQ (Intelligence Quotient) and EQ (Emotional Quotient), individuals all differ in their capability to comprehend compound concepts, become accustomed to their environment, learn by experience or engross within countless methods of intellect. In the journal article of Goleman (1995), he explained that our communities, jobs, schools and even our families would be more humanitarian and healthful if only we allow emotional intelligence become as widespread as the intelligence quotient that has spread throughout society. Emotional intelligence and its role on adolescent behavior is a problem that affects society. As outlined in the article of Neelu Sharma et al., (2015), the lack thereof for emotional intelligence could potentially lead to disturbances, and inability to achieve anticipated goals or aspirations. For example, it can be even worse when subcomponents such as problem-solving social skills compare with personality in offenders; in which impulse control may force juveniles to act chaotically. To obtain positive results in life, juveniles must be able to reason, manage, and observe their emotions, to guide their thinking and behaviors to adapt to any situation.
Even more so, the problem with emotional intelligence among juvenile delinquency is the mere absence of a male role model, linking poor emotional developmental results for children. For instance, take a father who has been incarcerated. These fathers are in the criminal justice system which limits the opportunities a child (juvenile) can visit them. Therefore, making it harder for the child or children to have their biological father in their life for proper parental guidance. As mentioned in the text of Rachel Barr et al., (2014) implementing special programs designed to increase the superiority of father and infant interactions during incarceration limits juvenile delinquency and increases emotional intelligence. The Literature ReviewAs a new murmur within psychological research, it suggests emotional intelligence is the missing key ingredient that separates top performance from average potential. While some research has been conducted on emotional intelligence and criminal activity among juveniles, only a select few have connected emotional intelligence (EI) to a specific type of deviant juvenile activity (Moriarty et al., 2001). The literature surrounding the relationship among emotional intelligence and juvenile criminality have been left with gaps to fill as researchers have failed to find focus on the implications of assessing emotional intelligence within juvenile criminality.
Diverse definitions have been proposed to define the concept; yet, the usage of the idiom intelligence to identify the concept seems to have strayed away from the important questions all researchers have been trying to answer, Is Emotional Intelligence truly a type of intelligence and Is it a viable construct?Akerjordet & Severinsson (2007) sought to examine and explain any prior research conducted on emotional intelligence focusing more on the perspectives of experimental and epistemological. However, their findings suggest emotional intelligence grips self-awareness in connection to self and others despite any theoretical framework used. Peter Salovey & John Mayer the two first researchers to construct the idea of emotional intelligence (EI) back in the early 90s; defined the term emotional intelligence as an individuals capacity to manage and understand their emotions as well as other members of society. Surprisingly, today individuals are being criticized based upon how they can handle themselves and others; versus how intelligent they are, or their added training and expertise. According to Curci et al., (2016) emotional intelligence is the missing puzzle piece for designing prevention and recidivism programs for criminal behavior.
As the study of Curci et al., (2016) examined the leading role of emotional intelligence capability on predicting criminal behavior within the psychopath lifespan viewpoint. Using different methods such as: CISS (Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations), BIPAQ (Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire), PCL-R (Psychopathy Checklist-Revised), MSCEIT (Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence) and CBI (Criminal Behavior Index) their sample consisted of approximately twenty-nine incarcerated males. A multifaceted outline of relationships surrounding variables were able to predict criminal behavior indexes of psychopathy from inmates. From their samples, results concluded that aggression was highest among low levels of emotional intelligence; thus, suggesting a need to design prevention and recidivism plans for at jeopardy juveniles. Moreover, the journal article of Malterer, Glass & Newman (2008) demonstrated restrictions of using pure emotional intelligence on predicting criminality, or even achievement. Nevertheless, increasing rates of imprisonment may be explained through the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) which has been able to pinpoint psychopathic maladaptive antisocial behaviors. To determine whether their hypothesis that viciousness, social estrangement, troublemaking behavior and school failure were factors of either delinquent or antisocial behavior was true; researchers Farina, Arce & Novo (2008) examined three hundred and forty-six individuals breaking them into two groups labeled high-risk and low-risk.
Over their discovery, those juveniles who were labeled high-risk had increasingly higher tolls of antisocial behavior, low self-esteem, and even little to no notches of emotional intelligence compared to those in the low-risk group. Even though the adolescence years are filled with much penetrating sentiment, antagonism, and misperception males like females will begin to experience higher spikes once they begin puberty as their testosterone and estrogen production levels begin to change. Furthermore, new research has been able to link personality traits to genes which persist from youth to adult. Even as traits have become more enduring and pervasive, changes in attitude or behavior become superficial and possibly short-term in nature (McCrae, 1999). In the study of Mayer, Caruso & Salovey (1999), these researchers accredited conceptual differences of emotional intelligence concerning the set of personality traits involving as an ability or certain type of intelligence. Their sample population consisting of two hundred and ninety teenagers between the age of eleven and eighteen, measuring the ability of emotional intelligence. The measurement tool AMEIS (Adolescent Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale) which consisted of approximately eight scales and could measure four intelligence competencies came to conclude that girls outperformed boys. Not only that, but emotional intelligence can be found highly connected to criminal offending and aggression. Youth who have higher levels of emotional intelligence are better able to control their emotions and ass far less impulsive, as opposed to those who have low levels of emotional intelligence.
Sharma et al., (2015) conducted a study exploring the connection of emotional intelligence and criminal behavior among convicted criminals. Their findings were able to demonstrate how emotionally impaired convicted criminals were with dealing with the emotions of themselves and the emotions of others. Their research study opened doors for other researchers to further research and implement emotional enhancement programs throughout prison to provide inmates a better comprehension of their emotions and feelings. Despite their findings, the research of Sharma et al., (2015) faced limitations as their sample population consisted of only males and not females limiting generalization. The paradigm surrounding emotional intelligence has become so confusing, researchers have become enmeshed within their research and debates. Emotional intelligence, one of the most recent contentious paradigms has been reaching considerable claims concerning the possibility emotional intelligence has in predicting criminal behavior. Take for instance, the article of Fernandez-Berrocal et al., (2006) that examined the connection among emotional intelligence, depression and anxiety involving juveniles. In testing approximately two hundred and fifty high school students these researchers came to conclude: (1) emotional intelligence was damagingly connected to levels of depression or anxiety and (2) the capacity to control emotions could be certainly associated with confidence.
Through their findings, it could be determined just how significant emotional capabilities are in structuring industrious relationships around us. Emotional intelligence is fundamental not only to who we are as individuals but also personally and professionally. Limitations in ResearchThe article titled, What is Over and Above Psychopathy written by Antonietta Curci et al., (2016) faced some restrictions within the research.The first limitation consisted of the sample population that fell within the psychopathic spectrum. To launch any generalization of their discoveries, there should be some future research that explains whether or not or gender/racial transformations are to be linked among emotional intelligence and psychopathy. Moreover, to even consider the findings of Curci (2016) would propose no need for further research; yet the PCL-R or even the BIPAQ has no universal score for they are just self-reported measures. These sorts of methods used by researchers only measures a specific range of variables thus excluding at others to be determined. What is even worse is that by using self-reported measured methods such as the PCL-R, BIPAQ, or TMMS researchers emphasize to others that these conclusions can be combined to research laboratory tactics to assist in understanding emotional intelligence dispensation discrepancies. Yet, in the article of Slotboom et al., (2011), he found that an individuals biological sex plays an evident role among aggression.
Their findings suggested juvenile male offenders had a higher toll of sexual aggression compared to females. Factors such as beliefs concerning sexual behavior and sexual abuse were taken into consideration as emotional intelligence deficits further completed the youth offender profile. While the literature review of Curci et al., (2016) provided some fair viewpoints, their research lacked a solid foundation into the connection of psychopathy and aggression. Even though there has been a great deal of effort put into analyzing and measuring emotional intelligence among juveniles; emotional intelligence has become a new road of exploration for juvenile criminality. To improve emotional intelligence among juveniles, researchers direct their focus towards implementing curricula of emotional intelligence within schools to produce positive outcomes not only in youth, but adults as well. However, one must remember that emotions are both internal and external stanching in response to good or bad experiences in ones life (Salovey & Mayer, 1990). Even as the emotional intelligence theory has gained insightful popularity, the popularity has reached its boiling point a short time after Golemans (1995) journal article. Within his text, Goleman discussed that success is not guaranteed based on an individuals capability to find reason or solve life-changing problems. However, problems arise involving emotional intelligence as there are multiple theories which all lack a solid foundation on emotional intelligence.
Each theory of emotional intelligence has their own key differences. Some argue that emotional intelligence should be considered a separate theory; while others argue that emotional intelligence is only a contribution of social & emotional factors that can predict future job performance or interpersonal relationships (Steinburg & Cauffman, 1996). Juvenile Criminality & Emotional IntelligenceDelinquent Behavior Classification Performances conducted by individuals between the ages of ten to eighteen who violate the laws put in place to govern society are deemed delinquent behaviors. There is an extensive array of gravity, fluctuating from misdemeanor to felony offenses such as: possession of alcohol or marijuana, running away to serious offenses of murder, aggravated assault and rape. However, many teenagers are committing status offenses, yet many are not being charged even though their behavior is portrayed as deviant. Those adolescents performing serious offenses such as rape or murder are readily mechanically branded within the criminal justice system from just one charge. Henceforth, new experiential indications depict that the family, peers and individual structures have a way of influencing youth criminal behavior. Correlation of Juvenile Criminality to Emotional IntelligenceEmotional intelligence incorporates a persons competence to distinguish and discriminate emotion in others and self.Earlier researchers such as Ashkanasy et al., (2002), focused solely on the mental aspects involving problem-solving and memory.
While other researchers have been able to categorize the implication of other non-mental perspectives. Discussed in the journal article of Salovey & Mayer (1990), emotions are internal and external stanching feedback to both positive or negative experiences in life. However, for an individual to increase their emotional intelligence levels, they must first focus on strengthening their positive experiences more so than the negative. While it has been tedious to measure emotional intelligence, several efforts have been greater than others in producing accurate results. Steinberg & Cauffman (1996) in the article titled, Maturity of Judgment in Adolescence: Psychosocial Factors discussed how hormonal changes during adolescence become impetuous and selfish at the early stages of puberty due to the fact teenagers supposedly have a reduced amount of psychological maturity than adults.
Furthermore, teenagers with low-slung echelons of emotional intelligence have a predisposition to carry their emotions incorrectly when challenged with uncomplimentary conditions in life such as strain and stress. Even worse, juvenile criminality has become a huge problem in America. Take, for instance, the crimes reported by the FBI in 2016 which demonstrated that 21.9% of adolescents had been arrested for property crimes; while 23% were arrested because of violent crimes including arson and high-value theft. Unfortunately, in these reports, African-American juveniles seemed to be committing more robbery crimes; while those who were apart of the American Native ethnic group were being arrested for drug abuse. Written within biblical text, Proverbs 22:6 states, Train up a child in the way he should go, and when he is old he will not depart from it strongly backs up the phrase training starts at home. Many researchers have been able to connect poor parental attachment, poor academic performance, aggression and criminality to low levels of emotional intelligence. Yet, these same researchers have been able to conclude those teens who have high levels of emotional intelligence and can improve it overtime later become mature successful adults in life.
Therefore, parents are the major contributors to the low levels of criminality, thus, leading to a lower rate of juvenile delinquency. As a parent, we have a duty to protect and raise our children in preparation for the real world. Yet, as parents, we often fall short in educating our children how to channel their emotions or communicate how they feel due to being raised in a frustrating environment or being raised by a parent who also has low emotional intelligence levels.Mohanty & Nanda (2018) in their journal article find that the different risk factors such as parent-child relationship, education, environment and living conditions promote juvenile criminality. Based upon their assumption, this article assumes men are not born to be criminals, but their adjacent circumstances help push a man to commit crimes. The evidence is sketchy as there is a lack of foundation to suggest if these risk factors are changed, then researchers would see decreases in juvenile criminal offending. Therefore, the mere assumption that there is a correlation indicates criminal behavior is a weakness. While on the other hand, Milojevic et al., (2016) contends juvenile criminals have inferior qualities of emotional intelligence than youth over-all. It assumes that their low qualities of emotional intelligence can be interlinked with well-being, self-control and emotionality. Their evidence suggests that researchers and policy makers should put more emphasis on interventions that have the capacity to improve feeling guidelines and raise sanguinity.
Evidence is far from being complete as, assessments conducted to measure emotional intelligence faces limitations; such as the assessments that can not measure all constituent variables within short time periods which may compromise results. Gender Differences Conflicting to expectancy, this article finds that female adolescents with high levels of emotional intelligence to commit more criminal acts; as opposed to adolescent males with low levels of emotional intelligence. Bacon & Regan (2016), suggested teenage females favored interpersonal aggression as it takes full advantage of any harm imposed to diminish personal danger tangled. However, while researchers expected emotional intelligence to restrain thrill-seeking propensities, they forgot to take a closer look at the dark side of emotional intelligence. Evidence found within the text of Bacon & Regan (2016) is vague or sketchy as if emotional intelligence is given to the wrong individual, it may serve to be more a weapon than a valuable skill. Reaching considerable claims concerning the possibility emotional intelligence has on predicting criminal behavior, different parental styles such as: authoritarian, dictatorial, permissive democratic and rejecting/neglecting influences a juveniles development of emotional intelligence.
Take for instance, the article of Fernandez-Berrocal et al., (2006) that examined the connection among emotional intelligence, depression and anxiety involving juveniles. In testing approximately two hundred and fifty high school students these researchers came to conclude: (1) emotional intelligence was damagingly connected to levels of depression or anxiety and (2) the capacity to control emotions could be certainly associated with confidence. Through their findings, it could be determined just how significant emotional capabilities are in structuring industrious relationships around us. Not only that, but emotional intelligence is fundamental to who we are individually both personally and professionally. Family & Peers along with social settings Adolescents with little to no self-esteem tend to build friendships with delinquent youth or even worse by involving themselves within gangs to seek confidence (Mason, 2001).Therefore, juvenile criminality is an adaptive survival reaction to any rejection from social setting groups. When juveniles have poor attachment ties among their peers and parents, this contributes to behavioral problems and insecurities.In the research study of Kranzler & Rossen (2009), it explained healthier relations created between other people and a childs parent produces constructive levels of emotional intelligence and can improve deviant behaviors amongst adolescents. Moreover, peer relationships that begin early on in life, provide children with opportunities for support involving intimacy and social influence. According to Kafetsios (2004), emotional interactions within peer and maternal relationships perform a fundamental part in launching charisma and established adult relationships.
Yet, factors such as self-confidence and faith point to adolescents finding customs to sidestep interactive relations, thus resulting in depression or anxiety. In the study of Wahab and Mansor (2017), peer and parental attachment among delinquents in rehabilitation programs in the country of Malaysia were measured using the AES (Assessing Emotional Scale) and IPPA (Instrument of Parent and Peer Attachment). Through these measurement tools, the results of this study highly suggest that there is no difference among parental attachment and peer attachment. However, there was a huge difference in male father attachment among boys and girls. Throughout this capstone project, I have learned that emotional intelligence is destructively connected to aggression, stress or depression. Internalizing and externalizing, low levels of emotional intelligence increases behavioral problems among adolescents; as they have a habit of expressing their emotions wrongly when slapped in the face with unexpected circumstances in life. Emotional intelligence and juvenile criminality is a major problem seeking desperate attention from our society.
Interestingly, adolescents who suffer from an emotional or behavioral mental health disorder have been associated with low levels of emotional intelligence, and the inability to construct healthy interpersonal relationships. Being born with abnormalities of either emotion or instinct has the tendency to bring on curiosity and adventures of adolescence. Therefore, like the phrase, birds of a feather, flock together adolescents who associate themselves with other adolescents who have low levels of emotional intelligence, and a background of juvenile offending result in picking up those same bad habits.Emotional intelligence may not be a contagious disease, but emotional intelligence is something that can be acquired through assimilation. Therefore, it can be passed down to other juveniles and repeated, producing lower emotional intelligence youth who commit more crimes out of a force of habit (Kafetsios, 2004). I consider myself lucky. Lucky because I was fortunate to have two loving parents in the same home growing up with me. Yet, not many other children can say the same. Coming from a broken home brings about dysfunctional emotional, psychological and spiritual challenges. Any child that is left without any sort of discipline or even affection cannot be sympathetic towards others or their own feelings. Their chances of developing maturely diminishes, and building interpersonal relationships are more likely not to happen. Discussed in the text of Ken Coelho (2012) a person is considered competent when they have the capability to coordinate stretchy survival responses within their environment.
However, juveniles who have missing puzzle pieces of their emotional intelligence can be found associated with alcohol and drug abuse as youth leading into adulthood. The Solution to the ProblemLike adults, children have emotions and at times will become angry. Their anger is nothing more than a natural response to their surrounding environment. However, children tend to express their emotions unlike adults. Children may shut down as they have not been taught how to identify their emotions, nor how to communicate the feelings in which they feel on an everyday basis. Salovey & Mayer (1990) in their journal article blatantly explained to their readers that emotional development takes place distinctively for each child. There are different forms for different groups of children especially differing for boys and girls. However, every child should start to dominant their emotional assistances that is required and necessary to help them better manage their stress and build constructive healthy relationships in life. Many experts commonly agree, that the most effective way to teach children emotional intelligence is through consistent role modeling. Parents are a childs first role model.
Through watching their parents being an active listener, willingness to segment their feelings, taking responsibility for their mistakes, and demonstrating forgiveness will help to maturely advance a childs emotional intelligence. Not only that, but will also help expand family relationships, build self-confidence and help a child become successful as an adult. Developing emotional intelligence can make all the difference between success and failure whether in life or work. The problem with emotional intelligence is its link to psychological development and neurological pathways which are created across an entire lifetime. Therefore, it takes a lot to change low levels of emotional intelligence or even long-standing habits of human interaction. To resolve the problem of emotional intelligence, they must first be willing to invest time and effort into changing their behavior, or it could be a complete waste of time. Therefore, the most important solution for changing low levels of emotional intelligence in adolescents is helping children identify and manage their emotions. Recognizing and managing emotions is the most likely resolution for addressing the problem of juvenile criminality involving em