Use Case

Published: 2021-06-19 01:05:05
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Use Case
A use case diagram depicts the units of functionality of the system as well as the actors capable of carrying out these functions. An actor is a person within the system needed to carry out a particular function. A function is depicted by an oval text box and is referred to as a use case as well, use case in this terms meaning unit of functionality. A Use Case diagram is a compilation of Use Cases to form a system. There are four actors within the MPP system. This does not suggest that only four literal people are responsible for operating the entire system. An actor is a classification of a person. In essence an actor refers to something general such as a job title as in this example the four actors are Secretary, HR Manager, Accountant and Staff Member. This use case diagram suggests that the classification of actors are responsible for the duties they are connected to. As such all persons holding that job title will be required to fulfil the duties depicted. The duties or use cases are explain further as use case specifications and the actors are details as classes in task two.
Use Case Specifications
Number: UC0001
Name
Create Employee
Actors
Secretary, HR Manager
Goal:
To add a new member of staff
Use Case Relationships
Extend: Include: Associations: Secretary, HR Manager Generalisation: Description Index Actor Event 1 Secretary gives member a form 2 Member fills form an returns it to secretary 3 HR Manager reviews form and approves employee 4 Secretary notifies employee 5 HR Manager confirms details Alternatives Index Actor Event A 1/1 Person Not Approved A 1/1.1 HR Manager disapproves person A 1/1.2 Secretary notifies person A 1/2 Invalid Data A 1/2.1 Person confirms data invalid A 1/2.2 HR Manager edits details A 1/2.3
Person confirms details
This use case specification explains the procedure to be undertaken when adding a new member of staff to the MPP payroll. This process involves both the HR manager and the secretary in terms of the system. The secretary initially distributes a form to the potential employee to fill within which the applicants’ qualifications and contact information is kept on file. The details mentioned within the specification encompass all the personal information of the applicant inclusive of contact information as well as personal details. This information is then sent to the HR manager to review where a decision is made to approve the employee for an interview. This decision dictates whether the secretary contact the applicant to inform them of an upcoming interview or to inform them that their application has been rejected. The assumption here is that MPP only hires members of the party to become staff members.
Number: UC0002
Name Create a Member Actors Secretary Goal: To add a new member to the MPP party Use Case Relationships Extend: Include: Associations: Secretary Create an Election Candidate Create a Member of Parliament Create a Regional Assembly Member Generalisation: Description Index Actor Event 1 Person requests membership 2 Secretary creates new member record 3 Secretary confirms persons’ details to be accurate 4 Member is added to membership list Alternatives Index Actor Event A 2/1 Incorrect Details A 2/1.1 Secretary enters incorrect details A 2/1.2 Secretary edits details A 2/1.3
Person confirms details
This use case specification depicts how a new member of MPP is added to the system. There is an estimated fifty thousand members of the party whom which information is needed to be stored as they are relied on during election time when the party is campaigning for election. The political party most probably doesn’t discriminate the right of membership by any one person. Seeing that not much clerical data needs to be manipulated the secretary is fully capable of adding a member to the party. The process begins as a person requests membership to the party. The secretary then enters the members’ personal information especially their contact information as given by the applicant. Once the member confirms the information to be accurate the record is saved and thereby added to the membership list of MPP.
Number: UC0003
Name Create an Election Candidate Actors Staff Member Goal: To add a new Election Candidate Use Case Relationships Extend: Create a Member Include: Associations: Generalisation: Description Index Actor Event 1 Staff Member elects Member to become candidate 2 Staff Member contacts Member 3 Member confirms 4 Staff Member adds member to shortlist 5 Staff Member changes member position to EC Alternatives Index Actor Event A 3/1 Member Disapproves A 3/1.1 Staff Member elects another Member to become candidate This system assumes that only existing members of the party are elected to become election candidates for a particular seat. A member therefore can be classified as an election candidate once their name has been added to a shortlist, which is a list of potential election candidates for a particular area. Using this assumption a member position classification was created within the member file an as such a member may have many classifications ranging from volunteer represented as VOL and election candidate represented as EC. Once an election candidate wins an election for a post they may be contending their position will be changed to Member of Parliament or Regional Assembly Member respectively as will be discovered.
Number: UC0004
Name Create a Member of Parliament Actors Staff Member Goal: To add a new Member of Parliament Use Case Relationships Extend: Create a Member Include: Associations: Generalisation: Description Index Actor Event 1 Candidate is voted member of parliament 2 Staff Member changes member position to MOP Alternatives Index Actor Event A 4/1 Member Looses Election A 4/1.4 Staff Member changes Member position to VOL
Number: UC0005
Name Create a Regional Assembly Member Actors Staff Member Goal: To add a new Regional Assembly Member Use Case Relationships Extend: Create a Member Include: Associations: Generalisation: Description Index Actor Event 1 Candidate is voted Regional Assembly Member 2 Staff Member changes member position to RAM Alternatives Index Actor Event A 4/1 Member Looses Election A 4/1.4 Staff Member changes Member position to VOL Both the Create a member of parliament and Create a regional assembly member use cases rely on the Create a member use case. Once a member looses an election his position within the party is reassigned to a volunteer.
Number: UC0006
Name Add Member to shortlist Actors Staff Member Goal: To add a Member to a shortlist Use Case Relationships Extend: Include: Associations: Generalisation: Description Index Actor Event 1 Member approves to become a candidate 2 Staff Member adds member details to shortlist 3 Staff Member changes Member position to EC Alternatives Index Actor Event A 4/1 Member Steps Down A 4/1.1 Member notifies Staff Member A 4/1.2 Staff Member removes member from shortlist A 4/1.3 Staff Member edits Member position A staff member is responsible for adding a member to the shortlist thereby creating an election candidate. The shortlist is a record of potential election candidates of the MPP. Editing of the shortlist is as simple as editing a table. A staff member is responsible for this responsibility. This use cases is used in conjunction with the Create an election candidate use case within which adding a member to a shortlist is referred to. Once a member agrees to become an election candidate their personal information is added to a list of potential candidates for a particular seat within a respective area.
Number: UC0007
Name Contact Members Actors Staff Member, Secretary Goal: To contact members of the party Use Case Relationships Extend: Include: Associations: Generalisation: Description Index Actor Event 1 Staff Member/Secretary queries member details 2 Secretary/Staff Member contacts Member Alternatives Index Actor Event A 7/1 Contact Unavailable A 7/1.1 Contact unavailable at given contact A 7/1.2 Use another form of contact given by the member This use case the procedure to be undertaken when contacting a member of the party. As shown, only full time workers and secretaries contact members. There are many uses of this unit of functionality beyond the boundry of this system. The political party requires that sufficient contact information is stored on each member as individual members are relied on during the campaigning process to organise meetings and assist with advertisement. The contact information that is stored on an individual member of the party includes a telephone contact, home mailing address and email address. The staff members as well as the secretary therefore have three options in which to utilise when contacting a member.
Number: UC0008
Name Record Income Actors Staff Member Goal: To record income generated by MPP Use Case Relationships Extend: Include: Associations: Generalisation: Description Index Actor Event 1 Staff Member records Invoice Number 2 Staff Member records income Details 3 Staff Member records the ID number 4 Staff Member records the Amount 5 Staff Member records the date generated Alternatives Index Actor Event A 8/1 Incorrect Record A 8/1.1 Income is recorded incorrectly A 8/1.2 Staff Member confirms details with Invoice A 8/1.2 Staff Member edits details The member of the party responsible for recording income will be a full time employee of the party. Since there are several offices each of which generate individual incomes there must be persons within each regional office to account for funds the party may receive, either by subscriptions received or from other sources such as donations from persons interested in supporting the party and its objectives. The person receiving income distributes an invoice through which a record is kept of individual payments to the party. This invoice must contain all the information needed on the transaction such as what the payment was for, whether it is a subscription or donation. The invoice also contains who made the payment, how much money was paid to MPP and what date was the payment made. In the instance of a donation a record is kept of the donor personal information so they are kept on record an assigned a donor identification number. This is to ensure full accountability of the finances reaching the party. This donor number is entered into the “ID Number” field in the income table. Where a member pays their annual subscription to the party their member ID is stored within the same field. This ensures accountability for the transaction as well as a record of the subscription received for that individual member.
Number: UC0009
Name Record Expenditure Actors Staff Member Goal: To record expenditure incurred by MPP Use Case Relationships Extend: Include: Associations: Generalisation: Description Index Actor Event 1 Staff Member records Receipt Number 2 Staff Member records expenditure Details 3 Staff Member records the ID number 4 Staff Member records the Amount 5 Staff Member records the date incurred Alternatives Index Actor Event A 9/1 Incorrect Record A 9/1.1 Expenditure is recorded incorrectly A 9/1.2 Staff Member confirms details with receipt A 9/1.3
Staff Member edits details
Full time employees are also responsible for recording the expenditure incurred by the party. The operation of any political party requires a host of expenses in which to organise and manage the party properly. The individual offices of the party will incur expenses for each office it maintains. The main expenses that must be accounted for include payment of rent for the various offices that the party operates. Salaries must also be accounted for as MPP employs over a hundred individuals which accounts for a major portion of the party’s expenditure. A major part of any election campaign is advertising which as for MPP includes television advertising as well as leaflets that need to be distributed by the party’s members. Along with these major expenditures the party may also incur miscellaneous expenses in order to keep the offices running such as telephone bills and mailing expenses, all of these are classified as sundry expenses. Whenever any expenditure is incurred all receipts given to the party is filed and documented. These receipts are used to document all the expenditure incurred by the party as the amount, dates and to whom payments are made are documented on the receipt. Each office, member and advertiser are assigned an ID number so that a level of accountability can be maintained as to whom payments are made.
Number: UC0010
Name Generate Financial Report Actors Staff Member, Accountant Goal: To generate a financial report for each office Use Case Relationships Extend: Include: Associations: Generalisation: Description Index Actor Event 1 Staff Member/Accountant selects Financial Report table 2 Staff Member/Accountant print Financial Report Alternatives Index Actor Event A 10/1 Incorrect Report Printed A 10/1.1 User selects correct report A 10/1.2 User prints correct report Each regional office is expected to produce a financial report to account for its activities. This will make for easier planning and budgeting by the national officers responsible for this such as the accounts department of the party. Therefore both party members as well as the national accountant can generate a financial report. To ensure the legitimacy of the financial reports the political party is expected to employ an internal as well as external auditor that examines the financial reports and compares them to the income and expenditure of the party. The financial report entails the total income generated as well as the total expenditure incurred for a particular office. These s can be used to determine the General Reserve available for funding the party’s activities.
Activity Diagrams
An Activity Diagram the logical flow of data within a particular use case. The following diagrams show the Create a Member use case but in two different activity diagram formats. The first diagram simply the logical order in a flow chart fashion. The second diagram the same use case with the implication of swim lanes.
Class Diagram
Class diagrams are used to identify the objects of the system and show how they relate to each other and their attributes. The class diagram used to analyse the objects associated with the MPP and depict their relationships with each other. Everything is related to each other through the MPP class. It is an empty class but is there to show that the generalisation relationship exists between the Regional Office and Head Office Class and the MPP class. Most other relationships within this diagram are generalisation relationships depicted by the empty arrow head. This diagram is structured in a hierarchal format. A generalisation relationship allows the subclasses of any parent class to inherit the properties of the parent class. This feature is also show in the diagram by the empty boxes within the Secretary, Staff Member, Accountant and HR Manager classes. This does not suggest that these classes don’t have any attributes but that they inherit the attributes of their parent class. The other relationships depicted is; the relationship between the Staff Member class and the Income, Expenditures and Financial Report classes, and between the Accountant class and the Financial Report class. These relationships show an association relationship as the classes interact with each other on some level of their functionality. The individual classes are explained in detail within their respective CRC card.
CRC Cards
A tool used to document the purpose and capability of a class is the CRC card. CRC stand for Class-Responsibility-Collaboration, as will be discovered, is exactly what the cards depict along with several other features of the class. The CRC cards represented in this section depict the classes identifies in the MPP system and show how they relate to each other.
Name: Regional Office
ID:1 Type: Concrete Description A MPP office representing a region of Contentedland Associated Use Cases: Record Expenditure Responsibilities Collaborators Full Time Employee Employee Attributes Relationships Office ID Generalisation: MPP(super class) Region Member (subclass) Address Donor (subclass) Monthly Rent Employee (subclass) Aggregation: Other Association: Full Time Employee Expenditure The regional office class is a subset of the MPP as a whole. There are several regional offices namely; Northland, Southland, Eastland, Westland and Central. Each office will possess the same characteristics as the other and as such are represented by a single regional office class within the class diagram. Distinction between classes is possible through the attributes of the class utilised and as such can be uniquely identified. The assumption made is that the entire system is divided into regions and as such all corresponding members and records are also presented in that regional office category.
Name: Member
ID: 2 Type: Abstract Description A Member of MPP Associated Use Cases: Create Member, Create an Election Candidate, Create a Member of Parliament, Create a Regional Assembly Member Responsibilities Collaborators Full Time Employee Income Attributes Relationships Member ID Address Generalisation: Regional office(concrete class) Last Name E-mail Aggregation: First Name Office Other Association: Full Time Employee Title County Secretary Date-of-Birth Position Telephone The member class comprises all the attributes of all the members of MPP. The assumption is that, regardless of hierarchal qualification all members of the party share common attributes and inevitably are all members of the party. This assumption gives way for the “position” attribute within the member class. A member according to the party can be a volunteer that assists the party in some way for no charge. Members are also election candidates who contend regional and national elections. The member doesn’t change their nature only their position when they are elected and become either a Member of Parliament or a Regional Assembly Member. As such the member class depicts that it is associated with the creation of all members of the party as they relate to their appropriate use cases within the system. Sufficient contact information is stored on members of the party as they may need to be contacted during election time when the party wishes to implement a rigorous advertising campaign. The email contact of each member may be a useful attribute as it is more efficient to send a mass email to all members than to individually contact them.
Name: Donor
ID:3 Type: Abstract Description A person other than a member of MPP that donates to the party Associated Use Cases: Record Income Responsibilities Collaborators Full Time Employee Income Attributes Relationships Donor ID Telephone Generalisation: Regional Office(Abstract class) Last Name Address Aggregation: First Name E-mail Other Association: Full Time Employee Title Office Income Date-of-Birth County Income is earned through subscriptions as well as through donations. People who donate to the party does not necessarily have to be a member. A person who’s interests are aligned with the policies of the party may choose to donate to their campaign in a hope that they may win the election. Information needs to be stored on such individuals to account for the sometimes large sums of money they may give to the political party. It is also useful where the party wishes to contact these members for one reason or the other. A Donor share similar attributes to members however as they are not members of the party they do not require a position field. However sufficient contact information is kept on these individuals so the party can always keep in touch with them.
Name: Employee
ID: 4 Type: Concrete Description An Employee of MPP Associated Use Cases: Create a Staff Member Responsibilities Collaborators HR Manager Attributes Relationships Employee ID Telephone Generalisation: Regional Office(Abstract class) Last Name Address Secretary(sub class) First Name E-mail Staff Member(sub class) Title Office Aggregation: Date-of-Birth County Other Association: HR Manager Position The political party hires full time employees to coordinate their activities. These employees are classified under each regional office and withdraw a salary from the party. Employees include Staff Members whose hierarchal classification is determined within each regional office as well as Secretaries who attend to each office of MPP.
Name: Secretary
ID: 5 Type: Abstract Description An Employee of MPP Associated Use Cases: Create a Member, Contact Member Responsibilities Collaborators Create a Member Member Edit Member HR Manager Delete Member Staff Member Contact Member Attributes Relationships Employee ID Telephone Generalisation: Employee(Abstract class) Last Name Address Aggregation: First Name E-mail Other Association: HR Manager Title Office Member Date-of-Birth County Staff Member Position The Secretary of the party is responsibilities include contacting members as well as adding members to the party. However they can only maintain volunteer records. Staff Members are responsible for the management of the other members of the party.
Name: Staff Member
ID: 5 Type: Concrete Description An Employee of MPP Associated Use Cases: Create Member, Contact Member, Add Member to Shortlist, Create an Election Candidate, Create a Regional Assembly Member, Create a Member of Parliament, Record Income, Record Expenditure, Generate Financial Report Responsibilities Collaborators Record Income HR Manager Record Expenditure Secretary Generate Financial Report Add Member Edit Member Delete Member Attributes Relationships Employee ID Telephone Generalisation: Employee(Abstract class) Last Name Address Aggregation: First Name E-mail Other Association: Income Title Office Expenditure Date-of-Birth County Financial Report Position HR Manager Secretary Staff members handle the brunt of the work within the party. Staff Members is a general term used to describe all the full time party workers who are employed within the regional offices of the political party. Staff members include all the party workers represented for each county of Contentedland. The duties of these members function similarly to clerical duties within an office. These staff members are allocated duties within the office structure oven though each member is responsible for their respective county that they oversee.
Name: Head Office
ID: 6 Type: Concrete Description The Head Office of MPP Associated Use Cases: Record Expenditure Responsibilities Collaborators National Officer HR Manager Accountant Attributes Relationships Office ID Generalisation: MPP (super class) Region National Officer(subclass) Address Aggregation: Monthly Rent Other Association: Staff Member Expenditure The Head Office posses the same characteristics as a regional office and it functions similarly as well. The difference between the head office and the regional office aside from its geography, is the employees that it houses. The assumption made is that the national officers within the head office function as managerial employees as would happen within a typical company. It should be structured in a way so that the ten national officers act as the managerial departments of the political party inclusive of the accounts department and the human resource department used within this scenario.
Name: Accountant
ID: 7 Type: Abstract Description The accountant responsible for the finances of MPP Associated Use Cases: Generate Financial Report Responsibilities Collaborators Financial Report Attributes Relationships Employee ID Telephone Generalisation: National Officer(concrete class) Last Name Address Aggregation: First Name E-mail Other Association: Financial Report Title Office Date-of-Birth County Position The accountant of the MPP is housed within the head office of the party. The accountant has the duty of managing the finances of MPP. The accountant is also responsible for generating the financial reports that are to be audited to produce a tax which the party must incur annually. This expenditure is classified as a sundry expense and must be accounted for within the finances of the party. The accountant is also responsible for ensure that proper control procedures are in place in terms of managing money the party receives. After all he is responsible for maintaining the integrity of the financial records and ensuring that they are in good standing with the laws of the country.
Name: HR Manager
ID: 8 Type: Abstract Description The HR Manager of MPP Associated Use Cases: Create a Staff Member Responsibilities Collaborators Add Employee Employee Edit Employee Delete Employee Attributes Relationships Employee ID Telephone Generalisation: National Officer(concrete class) Last Name Address Aggregation: First Name E-mail Other Association: Employee Title Office Accountant Date-of-Birth County Position In keeping with the assumption, the HR Manager is classified under the head office as this position is a managerial role. The human resource manager holds the same attributes as any other employee of MPP how ever his duties implicate him to be the one to manage the records of all the employees of the party.
Name: Income
ID: 9 Type: Abstract Description Revenue generated by MPP Associated Use Cases: Record Income Responsibilities Collaborators Print Staff Member Display Attributes Relationships Invoice Number Generalisation: Income Details Aggregation: ID Number Other Association: Staff Member Amount Financial Report Date Generated Income is generated through two sources in the party. The attributes of income allow for any sort of income to be documented, whether it is a subscription received from a member or a donation given to the party. A staff member is responsible for recording income into the system. The summation of the income table is exported to the financial report to form the net income .
Name: Expenditure
ID: 10 Type: Abstract Description Expenditure incurred by MPP Associated Use Cases: Record Expenditure Responsibilities Collaborators Print Staff Member Display Attributes Relationships Receipt Number Generalisation: Expenditure Details Aggregation: ID Number Other Association: Staff Member Amount Financial Report Date Incurred Expenditure is incurred from several means. A Staff Member is responsible for accounting for all receipts that an office receives as a result of incurring an expense. The summation of the expenditure table is transferred to the financial report to form the net expenditure .
Name: Financial Report
ID: 11 Type: Abstract Description
A Report summarising the finances of MPP
Associated Use Cases: Generate Financial Report Responsibilities Collaborators Print Staff Member Display Accountant Income Expenditure Attributes Relationships Report ID Generalisation: Net Income Aggregation: Net Expenditure Other Association: Staff Member General Reserve Accountant Date Generated Income
Expenditure
A Financial report is generated for each office of the party. The financial report includes the Net Income and Net Expenditure s. A financial report is generated after a particular period of time, more commonly a financial year. The summation of financial reports received from all offices provides an idea of the general reserve available for the party. This is the budgeted used to fund further activities of the party and would operate similarly to profit. The persons capable of generating a financial report include a staff member as well as the accountant. Staff members must be assigned the duty of generating a financial report because a report must be generated for individual offices. This requirement means that there will be several different reports. This must be structured in this way in order for individual offices to account for their activities. The accountant must be able to generate a report because he must have some degree of measure when budgeting finances as well as when he is criticizing the integrity of the financial records. The actors involved with this process include the person requesting membership to the political party as well as the secretary who carries out facilitates the transferral of the personal information of the potential member to the system. The steps of this process include; 1. A person requests membership 2. The secretary creates a new member record 3. The secretary confirms the persons information to be accurate 4. The person is added as a member on the membership list
Creating an Election Candidate
The actors involved in creating an election candidate are include the Member, who is actually becoming the election candidate, as well as a staff member who coordinates the election. The staff member is responsible for selecting a member from the membership list and requesting that they become an election candidate. This steps of this process include; 1. A Staff Member selects a member from the Membership List to become a potential election candidate. 2. That Staff Member contact the member informing them they are a potential candidate 3. Member agrees to becoming a potential election candidate 4. Staff Member changes Member Position to “EC” suggesting they are an election candidate 5. Staff Member adds Member to the Election Candidate shortlist.
B Sequence
A Sequence diagram is used to show the logical flow of data in terms of processing time per action compared to the process as a whole. Sequence diagrams employ actors as well as objects and depict the length of time each actor takes to do an operation including what operation they are doing. This diagram graphically represents the actor events within the description of the use case compiling the use case specification. This that the staff member is the main actor as they are operational through the entire sequence in one fashion or another. This sequence diagram the process as defined within the use case specification of the Create a Member Use case. The four actor events are divided between the Secretary and a Person requesting membership. This diagram goes through the sequence of events leading up to a Person becoming a Member of the MPP.
C State machine
State Machine diagrams show how a single class changes state as events occur over time. The sate of a class is represented by the oval shaped boxes and the lines depict the various forms the single class may undertake. Once a person is granted membership they become a regular member of the party. They can hold this position until they leave the party. Once they hold a regular member position they are considered to be a volunteer and assigned the position “VOL”. A Member can be selected to contend an election once this happens their state changes from member to Election Candidate. The event responsible for this change is the member being added to a shortlist. If the member looses the election they go back to being a regular member. If they win their election they can be elected either a Member of Parliament or a Regional Assembly Member. Should a member be elected a Member of Parliament they incarnate that state and are assigned the position “MOP.” An Election Candidate elected a Regional Assembly Member they take up that state and are assigned the position “RAM.”
a. Searching for the Election candidates for a particular county
Print screen showing the design view of the election candidate query. Since election candidates are members of the system the query needs to be designed to search the membership list for all the members who are election candidates. This is done by inserting “EC” into the criteria row of the position column. The query must also show that they belong to a particular county. The county being searched for election candidates is within the central land region. Each region is divided into counties number one to ten. The county being queried is county ten within centraland. Therefore “C10” is entered into the criteria row under the county column. Print screens showing the election candidates for the county C10
b. Editing Member Details
Print screen of Mrs. Carol Andrew of #17 Singh Trace, Central. In the instance where Mrs. Andrew has a change of residence the member record may need to be edited. Mrs. Andrew moved to #22 Bim Bim Road, Northland. This is a totally different region in Contented land. As such Mrs. Andrew’s details need to be edited as such. Not only will her address field change but also her ID because Identification numbers are distributed according to region. He County will also change as well as the office in which she interacts with.
c. Adding a new Member
Print screen showing the form used to enter member details into the system Screen shot showing the form filled and the save button to be selected.
d. Listing the party’s MP showing where they were elected.
Print screen showing the design view of the query used to search for all election candidates. The assumption is that candidates only go up for election within the county in which they reside.
Normalisation
UNF MPP Employee ID Employee Last Name Employee First Name Employee Title Employee Telephone Employee Address Employee Date-of Birth Employee Region Employee County Employee email Employee Position Member ID Member Last Name Member First Name Member Title Member Date-of-Birth Member Telephone Member Address Member email Member Region Member County Member Position Donor ID Donor Last Name Donor First Name Donor Title Donor Date-of-Birth Donor Telephone Donor Address Donor email Donor Region Donor County Office ID Office Region Office Address Monthly Rent Report ID Net Income Net Expenditure General Reserve Date Generated Invoice Number Income Details Income ID Number Amount Received Date Received Receipt Number Expenditure Details Expenditure ID Number Amount Paid Date Incurred 1nf Region Employee ID Employee Last Name Employee First Name Employee Title Employee Telephone Employee Address Employee Date-of Birth Employee Region Employee County Employee email Employee Position Member ID Member Last Name Member First Name Member Title Member Date-of-Birth Member Telephone Member Address Member email Member Region Member County Member Position Donor ID Donor Last Name Donor First Name Donor Title Donor Date-of-Birth Donor Telephone Donor Address Donor email Donor Region Donor County Office ID Office Region Office Address Monthly Rent Staff-Financial Report Employee ID Report ID Net Income Net Expenditure General Reserve Date Generated Income-Financial Report Report ID Invoice Number Income Details Income ID Number Amount Received Date Received Expenditure-Financial Report Report ID Receipt Number Expenditure Details Expenditure ID Number Amount Paid Date Incurred 2nf Region Employee ID Employee Last Name Employee First Name Employee Title Employee Telephone Employee Address Employee Date-of Birth Employee Region Employee County Employee email Employee Position Member ID Member Last Name Member First Name Member Title Member Date-of-Birth Member Telephone Member Address Member email Member Region Member County Member Position Donor ID Donor Last Name Donor First Name Donor Title Donor Date-of-Birth Donor Telephone Donor Address Donor email Donor Region Donor County Office ID Office Region Office Address Monthly Rent Income Invoice Number Income Details Income ID Number Amount Received Date Received Staff-Financial Report Employee ID Report ID Financial Report Report ID Net Income Net Expenditure General Reserve Date Generated Expenditure-Financial Report Report ID Receipt Number Expenditure Receipt Number Expenditure Details Expenditure ID Number Amount Paid Date Incurred Income-Financial Report Report ID Invoice Number 3NF Employee Employee ID Employee Last Name Employee First Name Employee Title Employee Telephone Employee Address Employee Date-of Birth Employee Region Employee County Employee email Employee Position Donor Donor ID Donor Last Name Donor First Name Donor Title Donor Date-of-Birth Donor Telephone Donor Address Donor email Donor Region Donor County Office Office ID Office Region Office Address Monthly Rent Member Member ID Member Last Name Member First Name Member Title Member Date-of-Birth Member Telephone Member Address Member email Member Region Member County Member Position Financial Report Report ID Net Income Net Expenditure General Reserve Date Generated Staff-Financial Report Employee ID Report ID Expenditure-Financial Report Report ID Receipt Number Expenditure Receipt Number Expenditure Details Expenditure ID Number Amount Paid Date Incurred Income-Financial Report Report ID Invoice Number Income Invoice Number Income Details Income ID Number Amount Received Date Received B. Data Dictionary Data Dictionary Title: System: MPP Document: Name: Income Sheet: 1 Type Structure Name: Income Alias: Revenue Definition: Income= Invoice Number + Income Details + ID Number + Amount + Date Generated Occurrence: Every time income is generated Picture: Notes: Author: RB Date: 25/01/10 Data Dictionary Title: System: MPP Document: Name: Income Sheet: 2 Type: Element Name: Invoice Number Alias: Income number Transaction Number Definition: The primary key of the income table. It uniquely identifies every transaction that occurs which attract income to the MPP. Occurrence: Every time income is generated Picture: Format: Text Field Size: 7 Notes: Every income transaction demands a new invoice number. There can never have a duplicate invoice number. Author: RB Date: 25/01/10 Data Dictionary Title: System: MPP Document: Name: Income Sheet: 3 Type Element Name: Income Details Alias: Details Income Generated From Definition: The reason for the income transaction Occurrence: Every time income is generated Picture: Format: Text Field Size: 30 Notes: An entry must occur here to make record of what reason income is being recorded. Income can come from subscriptions received from employees or from donations made to the party. Author: RB Date: 25/01/10 Data Dictionary Title: System: MPP Document: Name: Income Sheet: 4 Type Element Name: ID Number Alias: Received from Definition: The identification number of a person who pays money to the party Occurrence: Every time income is generated Picture: Format: Text Field Size: 7 Notes: Every individual who give money to the party is allocated a record within the database. Existing members already have an identification number so as such that number is entered in the field. Should the person giving money to the party not be a member they are recorded as a donor and assigned a Donor ID Author: RB Date: 25/01/10 Data Dictionary Title: System: MPP Document: Name: Income Sheet: 5 Type Element Name: Amount Alias: Definition: Occurrence: Every time income is generated Picture: Format: Currency Notes: The quantitative amount of money involved within an individual transaction Author: RB Date: 25/01/10 Data Dictionary Title: System: MPP Document: Name: Income Sheet: 6 Type Element Name: Date Generated Alias: Definition: Occurrence: Every time income is generated Picture: Notes: The date that the transaction occurred Author: RB Date: 25/01/10 Data Dictionary Title: System: MPP Document: Name: Office Sheet: 7 Type Structure Name: Office Alias: – Definition: Office = Office ID + Region + Address + Monthly Rent + Occurrence: Picture: Notes: There is a Regional office located within every region of Contentedland and a Head Office in the nations capital Author: RB Date: 25/01/10 Data Dictionary Title: System: MPP Document: Name: Office Sheet: 8 Type Element Name: Office ID Alias: Office Number Definition: The Primary key of the Office table. It uniquely identifies an individual MPP office Occurrence: One ID number is distributed for every Office Picture: Format: Text Field Size: 7 Notes: Author: RB Date: 25/01/10 Data Dictionary Title: System: MPP Document: Name: Office Sheet: 9 Type Element Name: Region Alias: – Definition: The region in which the office is situated Occurrence: Each office record must include a record of a Region Picture: Format: Text Field Size: 9 Notes: There are five regions of contented land namely; Northland, Southland, Eastland, Westland and Central Author: RB Date: 25/01/10 Data Dictionary Title: System: MPP Document: Name: Office Sheet: 10 Type Element Name: Address Alias: Location Definition: The geographical location of the office Occurrence: Each office record has a record for address Picture: Format: Text Field Size: 50 Notes: Author: RB Date: 25/01/10 Data Dictionary Title: System: MPP Document: Name: Office Sheet: 11 Type Element Name: Monthly Rent Alias: Rent Definition: The rent expense incurred from occupying an office per month Occurrence: Every office has a rent per month within its record Picture: Format: Currency Notes: Rent is an expense paid from the party and is incurred per month. Every office has a rent per month which it incurs. Author: RB Date: 25/01/10
Task 7
Object oriented analysis and design is the newer approach to developing systems. Object orientation revolves around the idea of representing real life objects as physical objects in the analysis and design stages. Object oriented development is classified as a language and there are many languages available. The language used within this assignment is the Unified Modelling Language more commonly known as UML. UML enables designers and developers to build a system in the perspective of the components rather than the structure. Systems are built by in visioning objects and grouping them according to functionality and relationships. This means that the structure is determined by the components and how they interact with each other. Advantages of Object Oriented Analysis and Design include the ease in which complex relationships can be depicted, as well as, it offers a method of communicating these complex ideas between technical and non-technical users. This method also proves a seamless flow between the analysis and design stages of the development. The use of object oriented analysis more so UML within tasks one through three allowed for complex ideas to be easily mapped and manipulated. The methodology allows for the structure of MPP to be generalised into diagrams. The object oriented tools examined within task one provided the basis for the structure of the entire system developed as well as provided an idea of the functionality of that system. Use case diagrams ensured that each unit of functionality of the system be critically thought out including the people who are capable and responsible for operating these functions of the system. The use case specification showed each unit of functionality in greater detail and demanded that real life systems or actor events be developed to carry out the process required for the system. Alternative courses of action were also considered. The activity diagrams considered the logical flow of control throughout the system Class diagrams is another useful tool within the object oriented arsenal. In task two class diagrams were used to show the relationships between objects within the MPP system. Classes aim at defining the objects in terms of their attributes and characteristics. These classes also show what each object is capable of doing and the relationship to other object to which they may form some sort of relationship. The communication and sequence diagrams add to the rigidity of the analysis process as the system is examined literally through time and space. The communication diagram show how the flow of data is transferred between object in terms of space and literal order of events. The sequence diagrams uses the a similar flow of information as the communication diagram but it depicts the proportionate time an event will take in terms of the entire unit of functionality. In general OOAD was easy to use and made the analysis and design of the system generally simple to produce.
SSADM
The structured system analysis and design method has been utilised by software developers for several years. The methodology uses words as well as diagrams to convey ideas of a systems’ architecture. SSADM uses three techniques to design systems and to provide different views of the system namely; Logical Data Design, Data Flow Modelling and Entity Behaviour Modelling. Logical data design depicts the ideas of a particular project and encompasses all the attributes and participating entities of the system to be designed. These diagrams include entity relationship diagrams (ERD) and data flow diagrams (DFD). Data flow design represent how data logically flows throughout the system, again a DFD is useful at this stage. Entity behaviour modelling depict how the system is suppose to respond when certain events come into play and is produced in a documented form. The methodology is designed in such a way that all three documents are integrated to depict the functionality of the system. This type of modelling is made to mimic the waterfall model, in that, emphasis is placed on procedural design of the system. There are different versions of SSADM but the preferred version consist of five stages; Feasibility Study, Requirements Analysis, Requirements Specification, Logical System Specification and Physical Design. Advantages of this methodology include achieving a sense of a timescale as this method allows for planning to be implemented and as such a clear understanding of the timeline can be appreciated. This planning can also result in better quality, greater efficiency in production and as such can be cost effective in that manner. Disadvantages SSADM may suffer is from the extensiveness of planning that the model calls for. This may mean for some business an agonisingly long period of time and can be beyond the prescribed budget for the project.

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