Simulation of Heap File Operations

Published: 2021-06-28 11:45:04
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Simulation of Heap File Operations Synopsis (Abstract) The Project demonstrates the simulation of heap file operations and its cost management, by displaying the time taken to complete the selected operations. Various operations such as scanning, insertion, deletion and searching are performed for heap file in this project. In heap file, all the records are stored in chronological order, i.e. the data is stored as and when it comes in the last, i.e. at the end of the file. There is no sorting applied to the heap files. Due to this, heap file is the most efficient file organization system for applications which have more and more number of insertions and very less deletions and searching. For Deletion, the required page is searched by scanning the whole file. The whole file has to be scanned as the data is not in sorted order and the file can be found anywhere in the file. The record to be deleted is identified using RID (Record Identifier). Once a record is deleted, the data below it shifts up a place in database to accommodate the empty space in middle. Hence all the empty spaces are available at the end of the file in heap file organization. Searching in heap files can be done in 2 ways, Searching with equality and Searching within range. In search with equality, a particular record is to be searched based on the equality condition. In searching within range, a range is given and the records between that ranges is displayed. In heap file organization, only insertion is the most efficient and faster operation. Rest all operations takes a lot of time as they have to scan the whole record due to its unsorted data. Hence heap file organizations are best used in applications which have large number of insertions and very less number of deletions or searching. Examples for the applications can be any statistical information collecting application, such as traffic monitoring or population statistics. Where insertions can be per minute or per day, and fetching or searching can be per day or per year. Heap file is the simplest method for storing data base file. Every operation has different method to calculate cost model. For calculation of cost model, we used four parameters B, R, C, D. B denotes number of pages fully occupied page, R denotes number of records, D denote average time to perform read and write operation, C denotes average time to perform database operation. The methodology is simple for heap file organization. For simulation purpose and to show how the heap file organization works, MySql database has been used. The data is inserted always at the end. For this, No primary key is assigned, hence data is not sorted and inserted always at the end of the table. Any deletion in the table, all the data below it shifts up. For any scanning or searching operation, we have to scan the whole table. To achieve this. We have used simple MySql queries with java programming language, which is connected to MySql using JDBC connectivity drivers. For the front end design, NetBeans IDE have been used. NetBeans provides various inbuilt packages which can be used for the efficient work on databases. Like DBUtils have a tool which converts resultset table data into the Jtable of NetBeans. The cost model is calculated using java programming languages basic time calculation tools. The main outcome of the project is that, we have achieved the proper working of all the basic operations of heap file organizations such as insertions, deletions, searching and scanning. And all these operations are handled through the well-designed front end. And the cost model of these operations are also calculated and displayed to the user in the front end as and when any operation is performed. Chapter 1: Introduction 1.1 Pre-amble: The Background work for the heap file organization is very less, as this file organization is not very efficient for most of the daily used application. All the daily used application requires more and more of searching, fetching and deletion of data, which works really slow in heap file organization due to its unsorted nature. Hence the heap file can’t be used for most of the day to day applications. But it can be used in statistical applications such as population survey, traffic monitoring etc. where data insertions are far more than deletions or searching. Basically these applications don’t have proper user interfaces defined to them as they concentrate more on data than user interface. They don’t have the mechanism to calculate the cost incurred for the operations on insert, delete and searching. Hence, in our application we created an application with well-designed User interface which can store data in the heap file and calculate and show the cost incurred for the various operations. It will also show the contents of the Database in real time as and when the data is inserted or deleted. 1.2 Literature Review: 1.3 Problem Statement:

Simulate and show how the data is stored in a heap file organization by performing basic operations.

Basic operations to be performed on a heap file includes insertion, deletion, searching with equality and searching within range, and scanning.

Calculate the cost model for each and every operation.

Represent the cost model in a graph for bulk record insertions.

1.4 Methodology Adopted: To simulate and show how the data in inserted and stored in a heap file, we have used MySql database. In MySql , we have created a table without any primary key, as a primary key sorts the data as per the tuples in that column , and hence it does not satisfies the heap file structure. The front end is designed in NetBeans and coded using java programming language. The front end is connected to back end using the Java Data Base Connectivity (JDBC), which is a standard API that allows java programs to access database management systems. TheJDBCAPI consists of a set of interfaces and classes written in the Java programming language. 1.5 Technical Features:

Simulate and shows the working of heap file organizations, i.e. shows how the records are stored in database in a heap file.

Shows in real time in the front end that the insertion always happens at the end of the file and no sorting mechanism is involed.

Shows how the deletion is performed in a heap file, i.e. after scanning the whole file for a particular Record Identifier (RID).

Shows how searching with equality and searching within range works through front end visualization.

NetBeans IDE is used for the front end design.

MySql is used for the database management system.

JDBC is used for connecting the java programming language used in NetBeans to the MySql.

Chapter 2 : Project Description In this simplest and most basic type of organization,records are placed in the file in the order in which they are inserted, so new records are inserted at the end of the file. Such an organization is called a heap or pile file. This organization is often used with additional access paths, such as the secondary indexes. It is also used to collect and store data records for future use. Inserting a new record is very efficient. The last disk block of the file is copied into a buffer, the new record is added, and the block is then rewritten back to disk. The address of the last file block is kept in the file header. However, searching for a record using any search condition involves a linear search through the file block by block—an expensive procedure. If only one record satisfies the search condition, then, on the average, a program will read into memory and search half the file blocks before it finds the record. For a file of b blocks, this requires searching (b/2) blocks, on average. If no records or several records satisfy the search condition, the program must read and search all b blocks in the file. To delete a record, a program must first find its block, copy the block into a buffer, delete the record from the buffer, and finally rewrite the block back to the disk. This leaves unused space in the disk block. Deleting a large number of records in this way results in wasted storage space. Another technique used for record deletion is to have an extra byte or bit, called a deletion marker, stored with each record. A record is deleted by setting the deletion marker to a certain value. A different value for the marker indicates a valid (not deleted) record. Search programs consider only valid records in a block when conducting their search. Both of these deletion techniques require periodic reorganization of the file to reclaim the unused space of deleted records. During reorganization, the file blocks are accessed consecutively, and records are packed by removing deleted records. After such a reorganization, the blocks are filled to capacity once more. Another possibility is to use the space of deleted records when inserting new records, although this requires extra book keeping to keep track of empty locations. We can use either spanned or unspanned organization for an unordered file, and it may be used with either fixed-length or variable-length records. Modifying a variable length record may require deleting the old record and inserting a modified record because the modified record may not fit in its old space on disk. The cost model of a heap file can be calculated using 4 variables, i.e. B, R, C, D. B denotes number of pages fully occupied page, R denotes number of records, D denote average time to perform read and write operation, C denotes average time to perform database operation. Let us see the theoretical cost model calculations in a heap file with respect to different operations:

Scan: The cost is B (D+RC) because we must retrieve each of B pages taking time D per page, and for each page, process R records taking time C per record.

Search with Equality Selection: Suppose that we know in advance that exactly one record matches the desired equality selection, that is, the selection is specified on a candidate key. On average, we must scan half the file, assuming that the record exists and the distribution of values in the search field is uniform. For each retrieved data page, we must check all records on the page to see if it is the desired record. The cost is O.5B (D + RC). If no record satisfies the selection, however, we must scan the entire file to verify this.

If the selection is not on a candidate key field (e.g., “Find employees aged 18”), we always have to scan the entire file because records with age = 18 could be dispersed all over the file, and we have no idea how many such records exist.

Search with Range Selection: The entire file must be scanned because qualifying records could appear anywhere in the file, and we do not know how many qualifying records exist. The cost is B (D + RC).

Insert: we assume that records are always inserted at the end of the file. A¥e must fetch the last page in the file, add the record, and write the page back. The cost is 2D +C.

Delete: We must find the record, remove the record from the page, and write the modified page back. We assume that no attempt is made to compact the file to reclaim the free space created by deletions, for simplicity. The cost is the cost of searching plus C + D.

We assume that the record to be deleted is specified using the record id. Since the page id can easily be obtained from the record id, we can directly read in the page. The cost of searching is therefore D. If the record to be deleted is specified using an equality or range condition on some fields, the cost of searching is given in our discussion of equality and range selections. The cost of deletion is also affected by the number of qualifying records, since all pages containing such records must be modified.

The NetBeans provide various tools to design an efficient front end, and java programming provides large number of interfaces and classes to perform operations on databases using JDBC. The resultsets are used to take results from database and display it in the front end. And NetBeans have a package called DButils which helps in converting the ResultSet table data into the NetBeans table data. An SQLresult setis a set of rows from a database, as well as metadata about the query such as the column names, and the types and sizes of each column. Depending on the database system, the number of rows in theresult setmay or may not be known.

In short, the overview of Heap file in points:

Simplest and most basic method

insert efficient, with new records added at the end of the file, providing chronological order
retrieval inefficient as searching has to be linear
deletion is accomplished by marking selected records as “deleted”
requires periodic reorganization if file is very volatile (changed frequently)


efficient for bulk loading data
efficient for relatively small relations as indexing overheads are avoided
efficient when retrievals involve large proportion of stored records


not efficient for selective retrieval using key values, especially if large
sorting may be time-consuming
not suitable for volatile tables

Chapter 3: Software Requirement Specification This chapter deals with the software and hardware requirements for our application. All applications have their own software and hardware requirements based on the work they perform and tools they use. The Hardware requirements gives the minimum amount of hardware required to run the application efficiently without any hitches. The hardware requirements include processor, ram, Hard Disk space etc. The software requirement gives the details about the required tools, languages, database management systems and their versions which are compatible for this application. 3.1 Introduction: 3.2 Hardware and Software Requirements:

Hardware Requirements:

Processor– Dual Core (minimum), Quad Core (Recommended).
RAM – 1gb (minimum), 2gb (Recommended).
Storage – 500mb (minimum), 750mb (Recommended).

Software Requirements:

Ubuntu 14.04 LTS
Netbeans 6.7 or higher.
Java Programming Language (openjdk-6).
JDBC Connector.
DBUtil package in NetBeans.

3.3 Functional Requirements:

Introduction :

The most basic functional requirement to show the working of heap file is data. Every application needs data to act upon. Here we will have student records to be inserted into a heap file. There will be a field to get student id for equality search and lower and upper limits for range search. There will be buttons to select any particular operation to be performed. There will be table views in front which show the real time output of how the data is stored in the database.


The inputs are Student Id, Student Name, Semester and marks. All these details are inserted with every student record. All these inputs are provided at the front end i.e. User Interface provided by the Application. For searching with equality, we will need a student id as an input to search the student with that particular student id. For searching within range, we need upper limit and lower limit of the range, to get all the records which comes within that range. There will be separate buttons for all the operations, clicking on the button will perform a particular operation


Once the inputs are given, the inputs are processed from the front end and passed to the database through Sql queries. The queries are created in java programming languages and passed to MySql through JDBC connector/Driver. For all the operations, cost will be calculated as soon as the operation is performed.


After processing, the output is generated at the front end which shows the real time working of the database and where the recently added data is stored (i.e. at the end of the file in our heap file application). It will also show the cost model calculated during the processing time for that particular operation. 3.4 External Interface Requirements:

Java Database Connectivity(JDBC):

The JDBC have pre-defined interfaces and methods to perform various operations on database management systems. Queries are prepared using the statements and those statements are used to execute the query with methods like executeQuery().

ResultSets is a set of rows from a database, as well as metadata about the query such as the column names, and the types and sizes of each column. Depending on the database system, the number of rows in theresult setmay or may not be known.

DataBase Utility(DBUtil):

The ResultSet returns the contents of the database table in rows and colums. To convert the table details stored in ResultSet into the table model of NetBeans, an external package is implemented called DBUtil. DButil consists of a method called ResultSetToTableModel(arg), which takes one argument of ResultSet type.

3.5 Performance Requirements: The Performance of our application is totally dependent on the basis of the operations performed on it. If the operations include large number of insertions, this application provides the fastest and efficient way for it. But if there are more number of deletion and searching operation, the performance of this application may reduce as compared to the insertion operations. All this is due to the structure of Heap files, where insertions are performed faster, as the records are stored at the end of the file and it doesn’t have to follow any sorted mechanism. Whereas any deletion or searching operation requires the whole file to be scanned to search for the desired record. 3.6 Design Constraints:

Primary key not to be used, as it will sort the file on which it has been used.
Deletions and searching operations should be performed rarely.

Chapter 4: Design Specification 4.1 Architectural Design: 4.2 System Design: 4.3 Detailed Design: Chapter 5: Testing and Results 5.1 Testing:

Unit Testing:

Unit testingis a softwaretestingmethod by which individual units of source code, sets of one or more computer program modules together with associated control data, usage procedures, and operating procedures are tested to determine if they are fit for use.

In out applications, all the operations performed on heap file such as insertion, deletion etc are all created in separate units. Each of which is tested separately if they are fit to be used or not.

Integration Testing:

Integration testing(sometimes calledintegrationandtesting, abbreviated I&T) is the phase in softwaretestingin which individual software modules are combined andtestedas a group.

In our application, after unit testing, we integrate all those units i.e. operations into one application and check if they working fine together.

5.2 Results: 5.3 Conclusion: This application demonstrates the simulation of how the data is organized in heap file organizations and how various operations are performed on it. This application also calculates the cost model and shows how much time a particular operation took, to perform the given task. The heap file organization gives best and efficient results for insertions. Whereas deletion and searching takes more time insertion takes. Hence, this application proves that heap files are best for the applications where insertions are too many and deletions/searching is too less, for example, in statistical applications such as population survey, traffic monitoring etc. This application provides a user friendly front end to see the real time working of heap files and how the inserted data is arranged in a heap file to make user understand the concept of heap file in a better way. References Annexure Department Of MCA, RVCE1

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