Utilitarianism is the philosophy claims that when it comes to a moral decision, always elect the one that benefits the majority. This particular philosophy originate from a movement of Ethics and Political philosophy in 19th century England. This is a concept that teaches people to determine the value of an action solely from a perspective of common good. Also, this idea begins from a fundamental principle that happiness and joy are essentially valuable and anything else is only meaningful if it can cause pleasure or avoid agony. In other words, the attribute of pain and suffering of anything is totally insignificant in this world. Jeremy Bentham, the founder of this philosophy, depict the applicability of Utilitarianism as the all gratification that results from one deed, minus the anguish of all the individual that participate in the deed.
In this case, on a ideal Utilitarianism, people will not be injured, but instead gain more happiness.
Nevertheless, this school of philosophy is still controversial since it is not hypothetically clean due to the fact that it is not apparent what fundamental work that God does in terms of regulating ethics. God as the origin of normative is consistent with Utilitarianism, however Utilitarianism does not necessarily need this. Also, in this particular case, any living thing that is virtuous and of common interest can be attributed to the ideal Utilitarianism. But, the fact that all the animals are not reflective and sensitive to the moral discrimination caused all the animals are not the object of any moral topics. Therefore, Utilitarianism can contribute to the allowance of us to make a order of reflective creatures besides its meaning on prejudice. In fact, the feature of a virtuous person is not only simply a man of the right actions but also a man that is affectionate and motivate to the right sort.
When we are comparing the morality of an action, we are kind of controlled by our sense of moral to make to judgement to the action. The evaluation of a best action is adding the pleasure and satisfaction of people. However, while adding this things, there are always people getting hurt and pain.The most significant philosopher in Utilitarianism is Jeremy Bentham. Jeremy is considered as the founder of Utilitarianism. He was impact by the thinking of human nature of Hobbes and Hume’s account of social utility. Bentham was born in a family of Conservative lawyers in Spitalfields in East London. He is considered a child prodigy, because he was a beginner walking child who had read the vast history of England at his father’s desk and began to learn Latin at the age of three.
After graduating from Westminster High School, Bentham entered Queen’s College of Oxford in 1760 and received his bachelor’s and master’s degrees in 1763 and 1766. He studied law and was qualified as a lawyer in 1769, but he quickly became tired of the lack of a rational foundation in British law. He believes that British law is a matter of fact and subjective. He hopes that the guiding principles of law can draw on nutrition from science, rather than being dominated by pure privilege, selfishness, and superstition as in the 18th century. After obtaining the permission and help of his father, Bentham began to study the law and handwritten the book. However, the early struggle of the Brigade alone did not affect much. It was not until the early 19th century that he devoted himself to social policy and the specific practical work of the government.
Bentham’s great dream is to establish a perfect and comprehensive legal system, a “Pannomion”. Trying to make the universal and perfect legal eye into every corner of social life, and to clarify the “universal inaccuracy and disorder” in English law. The core of Bentham’s clarification of English law is to demystify the common law. He vigorously lashes between natural law and common law, because in his eyes, many logical fictions of natural law and common law are just myths. Only through thorough legal reform can we build a truly rational legal order. But Bentham not only proposed a lot of legal and social reforms, but also clarified the potential ethical principles on which these laws are based