With the start of century new development in the economic front happened and the most important was Islamic bank. Financial institution around the world saw new things emerging from Islamic bank such as Islamic socioeconomic, benefits and believes to stop interest rates and unethical activities of financial institution. Islamic bank provide new methods and new form of investment for development of economy. Islamic bank has given world and financial institution new air to breath. Islamic banking has made some important political, social, and economical changes around the world.
Islamic bank has develop new definition for itself and it is define as a financial entity which can maximize the wealth of its share holders with benefits for the society based on Islamic principle or Islamic Shari’ah. (Islamic banking, 2010) Islamic banking is the banking system in which banking is done according to Islamic laws and to guide economic in Islamic terms. It is important to note that Islam prohibit and stops the use of usury and interest (riba) in any kind. Islamic banking also prohibits and stops involvement of banks in business related to gambling, pornography, alcohol and pork etc. Islamic banking has developed in late 20th century and it has created and catered the needs of Islamic consumer around the world according to developed technology of 20th century. (Islamic banking, 2010)
Principles Of Islamic Banking
There are main pillars in Islamic financial systems which are important for Islamic banking workability. Principle of Islamic banking includes laws and rules and they are called Shari’ah which governs many parts of society such as culture, economy and society as a whole. (Islamic banking, 2010) Shari’ah started from the rules of Qu’ran and its practices which then explain by Sunnah and by Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him). Further explanation of the Shari’ah is done by Islamic jurisprudent, and this interpretation is important for correct Islamic banking. (Islamic banking, 2010) There are different principles of Islamic banking which I will cover and explain. 1. Interest: Interest is considers bad thing in Islam because it is beyond the pale in increase of capital/money in many forms loans or deposits. More importantly we can say any increase in varies banking such as fix banking, to increase the profit is considered to be prohibited because it generates unhealthy profits. Interest (riba) is prohibited in Islamic banking but also charging is also prohibited in Islam because it creates debate on equality and rights (Warde, 2000). Islam is a peaceful religion and it encourage earning of profits but it discourage the interest in Islamic banking. Social system must have balance and lender and borrower should share the profit or lose and Islamic banking provides such socially acceptable phenomena. 2. Risk partaking: Risk partaking is not allowed in Islamic banking because supplier becomes unjustified-ably the benefited rather than the creditor. Islamic bank provide financial capital and its profit and loses must be shared to decrease risk partaking in general practice of financial activities. 3. Capital: Capital is also known as potential money and it makes actual capital join with other resources to make productive activity. Islamic banking recognize the value of money and but it prefers capital not the potential capital. 4. Speculative behaviour: Speculative behaviour is considered bad in Islamic banking because it involves extreme level of uncertainty and risk for capital investment and utilization (Islamic banking, 2010). Example includes gambling and anything related to gambling. 5. Purity of contracts: Islam is the religion which inhabits purity in it and it implement this purity in contracts because contracts should disclose all the necessary information to be known. Purity of contracts reduce asymmetric and hazard risk (Islamic banking, 2010). 6. Shari’ah activities: Islam involves only things which are based upon shari’ah and doesn’t violate shari’sh in any form. Example of approved shari’ah activities includes any investment in dealing with gambling, pork and pornography is illegal (Islamic banking, 2010).
Banking Risk And Islamic Banking
Understanding the banking risk is very important Islamic banking because in determines a competitive and volatile market environment for complex banking business process. A bank should be aware of risk when it is operating or taking any process into consideration. Below are the risk and factors an Islamic bank should consider in general banking environment.
Finance Product And Instruments In Islamic Bank
There are many type of financial instrument the Islamic banks use and these are sometimes simple and sometimes complicated due to various banking aspect. 1. Debt instruments: Debt instruments include Murabaha (Murabaha is determination of resale price based upon cost and profit markup), Salam (Salam define the deferred delivery of goods and it is opposite of Murabaha), Istisna ( Istisna is financial lending for long term), and Qard al-Hasan ( Qard al-Hasan is interest free loan). (Iran International, 2006) 2. Quasi-debt instruments: Quasi-debt instruments have Ijara which means leasing contract by group leases assets for specific rent and terms. The bank has to bear all the risk associated with ownership and assets can be negotiated based on market price and sale of Ijara contract. (Iran International, 2006) 3. Profit & loss sharing instruments: Profit and loss sharing instrument has Musharaka which is an entity under which bank and client jointly take a financial project. Ownership can be decided based on involvement of finance in the project. Profit and loss sharing is also agreed between two groups and there should be no violation of contract or misconduct in any terms. (Iran International, 2006) 4. Islamic Bonds: Islamic bond include Sukuk which is basically a financial certificate and it is Islamic equivalent of bond. There are some types of financial certificate which are not allowed in Islamic finance such as fix income and interest baring bonds. (Islamic banking, 2010) 5. Safe keeping: Safe keeping includes Wadiah in which bank is considered as trustee of fund. A person has account in the bank, bank assurance the amount of the account. (Islamic banking, 2010) 6. Agency: Agency is defined as waqalah which undertakes persons all transactions on his behalf. (Islamic banking, 2010)
Current Practices In Islamic Banking
Islamic banking are collective at the point of interest free banking and they have equal and distributed basic agreed principles to work on. Islamic bank can be different according to individuality and country laws, aims and objectives, experience and circumstances and interaction based upon free from interest rates. In the coming paragraph I will describe the common features implemented by Islamic banks around the world. (Gafoor, 1995)
Islamic banks have different kind of account which includes investment, current, and savings account.
A current account equal to conventional bank account and in it deposit is assurance.
Saving account operate differently in Islamic banks. In few banks depositor is allowed to use money but they have to obtain assurance of getting full money to the bank. Banks allow several methods to attract customers but no profit is promised. In other few saving accounts an account is treated as investment account and has various strings attach to it. (Gafoor, 1995)
Investment account are accounts in which amount is deposit for unlimited time upon the request of the investor share is done in profit between bank and investor. In investment account the capital is not assured.
Modes Of Financing
There are different modes of finance which are implemented by Islamic bank and called trade, lending and investment finance.
There are three main category of investment financing. They are: 1. Musharaka: Musharaka in which bank joins another group to setup another joint venture, both groups participate in project in varying form. The profit and loss is determined before the start of the project. (Gafoor, 1995) The concept of musharaka is similar to join venture concept and venture is independent entity from which bank withdraw step by step. 2. Mudarabha: Mudarabha is a form in which a Islamic bank provides finance and the person provides the expertise and management. (Gafoor, 1995) Profit and lose in this is also define before the start of project. But the important thing is that loses are usually taken by bank. 3. Estimated rate of return: under this type of investment bank determine the estimate price of returns for specific project undertaken by bank. If the project is finished and profit is more than estimated amount then the profit goes to the client, and if the loses is in the profit then the bank will accept lower rate.
There are five main category of investment financing. They are: 1. Mark-up: Mark-up is the type of trade financing in which banks buy items from client and client agrees to pay to the bank on agreed profit. 2. Leasing: Leasing is type of trade financing in which bank buy item for client and client has to payback the amount in specific allowed time. 3. Hire-purchase: Hire-purchase is the purchase in which the bank buys an item for client and hires him for agreed rent or cost for specific time until client becomes the owner. 4. Sell and buy back: Sell and buy back is in which client sells property to the bank and buy back from the bank at a agreed price. 5. Letters of credit: Letters of credit is where bank assurance for importing items for a client.
There are two main category of investment financing. They are: 1. Service charge loans: service charge loan is the service charge where bank lends money without interest and bank covers expense by service charge. 2. No-cost loans: No-cost loans are for people like farmers with small land, producers with small production and they are very needy person or clients.
Islamic banks also provide services which are also important such as money transfer, trade in different currencies, and bill assortment where banks own money and not involves in commission. (Gafoor, 1995)
Islamic Banking In UAE
Islamic bank started in UAE according the law of 1985 number 6 of article 1, 2, 3, and these laws governs Islamic bank and financial institute in UAE. (Centralbank, 1985) These articles are made so they are compatible with UAE and Shari’ah laws. To work in UAE in Islamic banking it has to conduct its activities according to principle of Islamic Shari’ah. Islamic banks in UAE have the right to conduct commercial, investment and other financial related activities openly and clearly. Islamic banks also have the right to do lending and other financial operation and they can also move their assets and benefit from these assets according to its shari’ah law (Centralbank, 1985). UAE has number of Islamic banks and the number is increasing each year and so the development of the UAE. (Tahir, 2006)Dubai Islamic bank is the first bank which is free from interest and it also practice Islamic banking according to shari’ah and this bank is based on the idea of Muslim endorsement by OIC (Organization of the Islamic Conference).
Strategies Of Islamic Banks In UAE
In the UAE the strategic management considered that it is group of decisions and activities in the present to ensure the performance of institutes in the future, these decisions included forming specific aims that should be achieved upon dissimilar periods of time begins with short period of time passing with middle period of time, finishing with the distant period of time, the strategic management consists of three stages: 1- The strategic environmental analytical stage: and it depends on studying of the two environments the interior and the exterior to the institute in order to identified the strategic management and use it in the next step the organization environment contains four main materials the chances given, the risks, in the exterior environment, and the weak and the strength points in the interior environment. The strategic planning strategy contains making four followed activities, and does them to achieve the institute’s aims and its strategic plans and its different policies. (Pealow, 2000) 2- The execution stage: it contains put plans and policies which have been developed in the last stage in effective application, during to the application programmes and balance sheet and different other procedures. (Pealow, 2000) 3- The watching strategic stage: this stage contains evaluate the institute performance to ensure that the strategic aims applied according to the plans and the correcting procedures to correct mistakes and effective watching for the application. But the human resource strategic is decision making process relates to the human resource system that make the human resource system with the environmental conditions and to support the institute’s strategic and achieve it strategic aims to face the exchange that face the institute according the environmental conditions. (Pealow, 2000) There is difference between work force planning and the human resource strategy but the human resource, so the work force planning strategy focus on application employments in human resources management because it is a part from the institute strategy and work with it to achieve the strategic aims, the human strategic human resources materials identify through to: 1- Studying the environmental materials that surrounded the institute from all its side and the human resource system. 2- Putting on the human resources aims with supporting the general aims of the institute and working on doing them. 3- Apply the human resource private strategy that supports its general strategy. 4- Apply the work plans and policies and the private time programmes of human resource that support the strategy.
Management Of Islamic Bank In UAE
Now the differentiate between the local and international business demands on the banking environment the great generated development from the quick technical development that dominate on the business with two its forms productive and serving, in all organizations, and the actual of competition that depending on the employ career and modern technology, in the work sector adding development and improvement in the productions and services in all kinds and forms, that achieves the organizations aim to destroy the competitions obstacles, and apply its planes, due to the progressing improvement in the field of development and progress of the organizations strategies. And to achieve all of these things, it is necessary and duty of the managements find strategic professional management for human resources and it should be the productive and creative basic of the organization with specialist rule can be deal with the environmental changes, and to integrate its strategy with the organization strategy that it deals with to use the chances and face changes and the ability to self built, that helps to achieve strategic aims for managements and organizations. The process of educated and trained human resource the most important cases that the banks and institutes related to, so on the developing nations take great importance combined with great desire to develop and improve the work performance for the workers and identify their productivity, in this research we will study the strategic management for human resource as group of modern systems that completed to achieve human resource system that aims to support the organization strategies to face changes with environmental cases that achieve its development and progressing.
Challenges Facing Islamic Banking
Islamic banking faces many challenges around the world. There are many challenges related to conventional banking, globalization, competition, price and quality, economy, growth, capital and long term investment. The Islamic banking has many weaknesses and strengthens which make them workable in hostile environment. (Challenges facing Islamic, 2005) Islamic bank should develop global banking industry and open their self for financial balance and attracting large number of clients for greater ability to attract the capital and providing best possible service. (Tahir, 2006)Islamic bank should also provide better rule and standards, good station, good technical system, good financial technology and innovation. Islamic bank should also regulate itself according to international Islamic financial market. (Challenges facing Islamic, 2005) There are many challenges related to commercial aspects affecting Islamic banking and Islamic institution. Below diagram illustrate the differences which are faced by Islamic bank in no-commercial and commercial pressure.
The Islamic Bank In UAE And Market Discipline
UAE as new creative and development country adapt all new changes that related to business so that it could continues and implement always the demands of world economy and created relations in a way for stronger marketing improvement. And since the banking investment it is one main way to achieve the successful in business environment, as a result the UAE government id support and help to have 8 Islamic banks that been entered to the market in all UAE with capital investment exceed trillions of dollars. So all these banks did already start their operations and did increase the preference in the huge economy of UAE. So, all banks in UAE do have plans to get more profits ASAP based on the visions and missions to become as one of the leading banks in the world (Archer & Karim, 2007). Islamic banks in UAE considered as a multinational organizations network that spread all over the region. There are legends in innovation founded in UAE economy. They do provide products and a service in different countries, recently employed thousands of people around the region, and sells and services real estate and other retails in many countries. Market discipline plays an important role in banking and if an Islamic bank has to develop; it has to follow the steps of information, ability, incentives and mechanism combining with market discipline which is shown diagram below. (Archer & Karim, 2007) Figure 3: Developing market discipline in Islamic Banking
Islamic Banks Nature Of Innovation
Nature of economy is changing developed world, more and more innovation is needed for continuous growth. (Tahir, 2006)The challenge face by today world is crisis which is faced by different organization and institutions. This crisis makes difficulty in lending, decline in non-financial organization cooperation for growth so we need innovative concept and technique which are in early Islamic banking such as Mufawada, and Mudarabah. (Iqbal, 2001) Below are the growth factors in variable terms and it effect on Islamic banking, these analysis give us the perspective where the Islamic bank are standing and where they should go in coming decade. v IBs stands for Islamic Banks v CG stands for control group which consist of conventional banks. Source: Dr. Munawar Iqbal (2001). In Islamic Banking and Finance: Current Developments in Theory and Practice (p. 382). United Kingdom: The Islamic Foundation. In 1990-94 Islamic bank investment growth was 11.3% while control group has negative growth. In 1994-97 Islamic bank had a decrease growth 7.3 % while control group had increase growth of 9.1%. Source: Dr. Munawar Iqbal (2001). In Islamic Banking and Finance: Current Developments in Theory and Practice (p. 382). United Kingdom: The Islamic Foundation. In 1990-94 Islamic bank assets growth were 9.3% while control group has asset growth of 4.8%. In 1994-97 Islamic bank had a decrease growth 6.8 % while control group had increase growth of 6.6%. Source: Dr. Munawar Iqbal (2001). In Islamic Banking and Finance: Current Developments in Theory and Practice (p. 382). United Kingdom: The Islamic Foundation. In 1990-94 Islamic bank equity growth were 7.9% while control group has asset growth of 6.4%. In 1994-97 Islamic bank had increase growth 10.5 % while control group had decrease growth of 4.7%. In 1990-94 Islamic bank deposits growth were 9.3% while control group has deposit growth of 3.1%. In 1994-97 Islamic bank had decrease growth 6.1 % while control group had increase growth of 7.2%.
Islamic banking is a very young concept compare to traditional banking, still it is implemented in Islamic countries but Islamic countries there is also traditional banking which is the threat to Islamic banking. Despite the success of Islamic banking there are few problems in Islamic banking which are related to area of finance. (Gafoor, 1995) To get rid of problems Islamic banking, Islamic bank should get rid of unwieldy, troublesome and uncertain financing activities, and have efficient and effective interest free banking. In Islamic banking it has all needed and basic required element for successful banking but they need little modification, such modified example is mudaraba financial service. Islamic bank also should operate in non-Muslim countries and they should give positive alternative to conventional banking for non Muslim people. (Gafoor, 1995) Finance is unique feature of Islamic banking and it should be relevant to shari’ah and Islamic principle, but it must not forget to have a country which can develop itself on Islamic banking.
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