The world, with sadness, recalls the events that have become lessons for the generations to come and show the catastrophic power of nuclear weapons and the consequences of its use. Not before or after these events, the atomic bomb has never been used against the civilian population, although after 1945 there were many incidents that could have resulted in nuclear strikes that could destroy life throughout the planet, and with it all history, achievements and achievement of mankind. Nuclear bombing in August 1945 cost the lives of 140 thousand residents of Hiroshima and 70 thousand Nagasaki. The Americans explain their actions against the Japanese as “”humanitarian necessity”” and that this should accelerate the end of the World War II, and thereby reduce the amount of losses on the part of the US Army.
Many historians agree that these events were an attempt by America to play muscles in front of the world and, in particular, the USSR, in order to demonstrate its newest weaponry. It is not known whether President Roosevelt would allow this action against the Japanese people, if he was alive. But he died on April 12, 1945, and his place was taken by Harry Truman, who approved the nuclear bombing of Hiroshima, and later Nagasaki. It should be noted that these two cities Americans are not limited. The next should be the densely populated city of Tokyo capital. But the Japanese government had enough to surrender the mind before it had to happen. The defeat of Nazi Germany did not mean the end of the World War II. Japan still continued to resist allies.
At the end of 1944, the United States actually destroyed the Japanese fleet, which in this theater of fighting was not decisive. The victorious victory over the sea allowed the United States to release from the Japanese troops of the Philippines and a number of Pacific islands. In the spring of 1945, British troops beat the Japanese with Burma. The American “”flying fortresses”” (B-17, B-29) continued to build systematic bombing of the Japanese islands. One of the American generals assured that Japan “”will soon return to the Stone Age””. Despite this, the Japanese were determined to fight to the last. This was evidenced by the fighting for the islands of Iwo Jima and Okinawa. So, for the capture of a small island of Okinawa, which protected 120 thousand Japanese groups, the American 500 thousandth army, with full superiority at sea and in the air, will take two months of fierce battles (May-June 1945). The Japanese only stopped resisting when the last defender died. In the battle for the island, the Japanese lost both the remains of their combat aircraft – 4,000 planes, as well as the last major naval ships. American losses amounted to 50 thousand dead and wounded 763 aircraft and 36 ships.
During this battle, the Japanese command decided to throw in the last battle the remains of the Japanese fleet, headed by the battleship “”Yamato”” – the largest battleship in the world with 460-mm guns. The meeting in an open battle with this ship did not carry anything good for the American fleet. The Japanese fleet was equipped with the maximum number of ammunition and fuel at one end only. The Americans learned on time about the way out of the sea of ‹‹this monster and decided to destroy it with aviation. April 7, 1945, a bloody battle broke out. About 700 Japanese aircraft (of which 355 were “”kamikaze””) attacked the American fleet. In turn, American aircraft attacked “”Yamato””, which after 4 hours of continuous bombardments sank, taking with them a life of 2,488 Japanese sailors. Also, a Japanese cruiser and four destroyers were flooded. The Japanese fleet ceased to exist. The losses of Americans were only 15 aircraft. Realizing that the battles for Japan will be no less fierce and bloody, the American leadership has dared to use against Japan new weapons – an atomic bomb. Although, to a greater extent, the decision on Atomic bombing had a political significance: to show the power of the United States to the whole world, in particular the USSR. August 6, 1945, two days before the alleged USSR’s entry into the war with Japan, an atomic bomb was dropped from the heavy American B-29 bomber to the Japanese city of Hiroshima. On August 9 this “”experiment”” was repeated in the city of Nagasaki.
The total number of deaths reached 200 thousand people. The number of victims reached 500 thousand people. It is impossible to justify the use of atomic weapons against civilians. On April 5, 1945, on the behalf of the Soviet government, the Japanese ambassador in Moscow had made a statement that the USSR was denouncing the pact on neutrality with Japan. On the grounds for denunciation, it was said that “”the situation has changed radically … Japan, an ally of Germany, helped the latter in her war against the USSR. Moreover, Japan is struggling with the United States and Britain, which are allies of the Soviet Union. In Japan itself, this statement has caused a change of government. August 8, 1945, the USSR declared war on Japan. From the radio of the Emperor Hirohito to the Japanese people on August 14, 1945, “”In fact, we declared war on America and Britain with a sincere desire to ensure Japan’s self-preservation and stabilization of East Asia, in no way intending to make territorial acquisitions, nor restrict the sovereignty of other nations. But now the war lasts for almost four years. Despite the maximum efforts of everyone – the valorous struggle of our armies, the fleet, the indefatigable diligence of our civil servants and the dedicated service of our 100 millionth people – the military situation has not changed in favor of Japan.
While all world tendencies turned against our interests. In addition, the enemy began to apply a new, most cruel bomb, whose ability to destroy a large number of innocent lives is truly immense. If we continue to fight, this will not only lead to the ultimate death of the Japanese nation, but will also lead to the complete disappearance of human civilization. “” Under the blows of the Soviet army, Japanese troops make weapons. In captivity was taken about 640 thousand people. On September 1, the Soviet troops landed on the southern Isles of the Kuril Ridge. The whole campaign of the Soviet troops against Japan lasted 24 days. The losses of Japanese troops amounted to 84 thousand, Soviet-12 thousand killed. On September 2, 1945, in Tokyo Bay, on board the American cruiser “”Missouri””, in the presence of representatives of the countries that participated in the war with Japan, a ceremony was signed to sign the act of unconditional surrender of Japan. The end of the war against Japan provided for the conclusion of a peace treaty with her. However, the United States, having breached its previous agreements, refused to hand over the preparation of a peace treaty with Japan to the Council of Foreign Ministers, postponing the issue of a peaceful settlement in the Pacific. Japan and its entrenched territories were divided into occupation zones between the United States, the USSR, Britain, and China.
Actually Japan got into the American occupation zone and on September 6, 1945, American troops landed on its territory. Of all continents, Europa suffered most. Its fields were plowed by trenches, trenches, gnawed with mines, shells, fragments. Many towns and villages were destroyed in the background. Millions of people were left without blood, were in a foreign land. Industrial production in Europe fell by 40%. All types of transport suffered greatly. The financial situation of most of the warring countries has become catastrophic. Inflation raged everywhere. Frank worsened by 80%, pound – by 38%. England even had to sell 19% of its foreign property. Agriculture also suffered significant losses: yield crops fell, large areas remained unpolluted. Great changes occurred in the quality and quantity of manpower. The Second World War was a complex political and social phenomenon. For six years, her character and purpose of the participants have changed. The experience of the war showed that political leadership of the leaders plays an important role in it. The ambitions of state helmets grew especially at the final stage of the war, when the troops, at the orders of their commanders in spite of no human losses, sought to capture as many territories as possible to achieve post-war geopolitical advantages. But the main outcome of the war was the defeat of Nazi Germany, fascist Italy and militaristic Japan. Scapegoat defeated fascism (Nazism) – one of the most reactionary and hateful models of totalitarianism.
Fascist regimes were eliminated, fascist bans were forbidden, fascist leaders were fairly punished. It discredited itself to fascist (Nazi) ideology. The victory over fascism was the victory of democracy and humanism. Thanks to her, democracy has strengthened its position in the world. It became the determining force of social development. However, the victory did not eliminate all contradictions in the world. For the peoples of Eastern Europe and parts of Asia, the victory over fascism and militarism did not become the triumph of freedom and democracy; it turned into a plantation of totalitarianism but the Soviet model. The Soviet-style totalitarianism (communism), thanks to a temporary alliance with democratic countries and a joint victory over fascism, has strengthened its position in the world, expanded the area of ‹‹its domination and challenged the same democracy and freedom. The strategic goal – to put an end to totalitarianism, which carried the most daring and far-sighted Western policy, was not achieved. The victory in this plan was half, not for everyone. In this situation, the confrontation between East and West, communism and democracy began to emerge. The personification of this struggle was the confrontation between the two superpowers – the US and the USSR, which resulted in the Cold War: an unbridled arms race, unconcealed mistrust and hostility to opposing camps.
The war marked the beginning of the collapse of the colonial system. The struggle of the peoples of the colonies against aggression merged with the national liberation movement against the metropolis, the growth of national consciousness in the countries of Asia and Africa, which eventually led to the collapse of colonial empires and the democratization of a number of European countries. The World War II changed not only the political map of the world but also the fate of entire peoples, in particular deportees and those who were subjected to mass genocide (Jews, Gypsies, Serbs, etc.). There was a split between individual peoples and countries for two state formations (Vietnam, Korea, Germany, China), which for many years delayed the process of their unification. The Second World War gave a powerful impetus to the development of science and technology. The greatest discoveries of the war period include the production of joint efforts of scientists from several countries of the atomic bomb, which ultimately affected the whole development of science and technology. Radar installations invented in England to detect German air armada gave a powerful impetus to the further development of radio electronics.
In general, both of these directions in the field of physics contributed to the accelerated development of cybernetics. The Germans managed, albeit at the end of the war, to begin mass production of aircraft with jet engines. The serious discoveries of the war period include the German missiles FAU-1 and FAU-2, which, in the subsequent efforts of US and US scientists, transformed into a rocket carrier of nuclear weapons and spacecraft. The huge paradox of science was that the efforts of scientists subordinated to the invention of more effective means of mass destruction of people, and not the means of their protection. The final battles of the World War II in Europe and the Pacific were not less bloody between the previous years. The war took people’s lives until the last day. However, winners and defeated in the war have already been known. The last months of the war have become the culmination of cooperation between the countries of the Anti-Hitler coalition. It seemed that after such a terrible war with tens of millions of victims, huge destruction would came a lasting peace and cooperation between the states would prevail. However, in this period, there were little noticeable symptoms of the future confrontation between the two superpowers of the US and the USSR. The actions of the armies were dictated not by military necessities, but by political calculations for the future. The conclusion of the Second World War was simultaneously the beginning of a new nuclear era.