According to Erikson, early adulthood is the period in the wake of the adolescent emphasis upon identity formation, ‘the young adult, emerging from the search for and insistence on identity, is eager and willing to fuse their identity with that of others. They are ready for intimacy, that is, the capacity to commit to concrete affiliations and partnerships.’ They well get the ability ‘to face the fear of ego loss in situations or self-abandon in the solidarity of close affiliations, sexual unions, in close friendships and in physical combat’. Avoidance of such experiences leads to a deep sense of isolation and self-absorption’.In modern societies, young adults in their late teens and early 20s face many issues with their full-time jobs and take on other responsibilities of adulthood; and ‘the young adult is usually preoccupied with self-growth in the context of society and relationships with others.’ Early Adulthood is a period where we make crucial important choices regarding marriage, family, work, and lifestyles. While ‘young adulthood is filled questions for intimate relationships and other major commitments involving career and life goals’, there is also “a parallel pursuit for the formulation of a set of moral values”.
Erikson has argued that it is now that what he calls the ‘ideological mind’ of adolescence gives way to ethical sense which is the mark of the adult. Early adulthood is a time of: establishing personal and economic independence Identity exploration, especially in love and work Instability; Self-focused Feeling in-between. Physical strength typically peaks in early adulthood (the 20s and 30s) Although physical changes are minimal during this phase , the weight and muscle mass change as a result of diet , exercise ,pregnancy and lactation. Growth and strength in early adulthood, then slow process of decline afterwards Decline affected by health and lifestylesPiaget believed that the formal operational stage (ages 11 to 15) is the highest stage of thinking. Adults gain knowledge, but ways of thinking are the same as those of adolescents. Some researchers disagree with Piaget and believe that thinking in early adulthood becomes more realistic and pragmatic. Post-formal thought – thought that is Reflective and relativistic Realistic, their idealism decreases Emotion & subjective factors can influence thinking Late adolescence to early adulthood is the main age window for wisdom (expert knowledge about the practical aspects of life that permits excellent judgment about important matters)In his theory of psychosocial development, Erikson described two fundamental themes that dominate adulthood: love and work. During early adulthood, individuals enter Erikson’s intimacy versus isolation stage (developmental task of forming intimate relationships with others or becoming socially isolated). Independence : separation from family of origin Learn to function without using parents as major source of comfort, security, direction Establish sense of equality with parents Develop adult friendshipsEmotional Intelligence:The term created by researchers called Peter Salovey and John Mayer and popularized by Dan Goleman in his 1996 book. Peter Salovey and John D. Mayer (1990) defined emotional intelligence in their article called Emotional Intelligence, as “the ability to monitor one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and actions.” It is the ability to identify and manage our own emotions and the emotions of others. It includes three skills: Emotional awareness; the ability to harness emotions and apply them to tasks like thinking and problem solving; and the ability to manage emotions, which includes regulating your own emotions, and cheering up or calming down other people. Emotional intelligence refers to the ability to perceive, control, and evaluate emotions. Some researchers suggest that emotional intelligence can be learned and strengthened, while others claim it’s an inborn characteristic.
Mayer and Salovey proposed 16 types of emotional intelligence and it includes four branches:- The ability to perceive emotions in oneself and others accurately.- The ability to use emotions to facilitate thinking.- The ability to understand emotions, emotional language, and the signals conveyed by emotions.- The ability to manage emotions to attain specific goals.The ability to perceive emotions in oneself and others accurately. It includes four types they are The ability to identify emotion in one’s physical states, feelings and thoughts, ability to identify emotions in other people, designs, artwork, etc., through language, sound appearance and behaviour, ability to express emotions accurately, and to express needs related to those feelings and ability to discriminate between accurate and inaccurate, or honest versus dishonest expressions of feeling.The ability to use emotions to facilitate thinking. It also includes four types. They are Emotions prioritise thinking by directing attention to important information, Emotions are sufficiently vivid and available that they can be generated as aids to judgement and memory concerning feelings, Emotional mood swings change the individual’s perspective from optimistic to pessimistic, encouraging consideration of multiple points of view, and Emotional states differentially encourage specific problems approaches such as when happiness facilitates inductive reasoning and creativity.The ability to understand emotions, emotional language, and the signals conveyed by emotions. It also includes four types. They are Ability to label emotions and recognise relations among the words and the emotions themselves, such as the relation between liking and loving, Ability to interpret the meanings that emotions convey regarding relationships, such as that sadness often accompanies a loss ,Ability to understand complex feelings: simultaneous feelings of love and hate, or blends such as awe as a combination of fear and surprise, and Ability to recognise likely transitions among emotions, such as the transition from anger to satisfaction, or from anger to shame.Reflective Regulation of Emotions to Promote Emotional and Intellectual Growth. It also includes four types.
They are Ability to stay open to feelings, both those that are pleasant and those that are unpleasant, Ability to reflectively engage or detach from an emotion depending upon its judged informative or utility, Ability to reflectively monitor emotions in relation to oneself and others, such as recognising how clear, typical, influential or reasonable they are, and Ability to manage emotion in oneself and others by moderating negative emotions and enhancing pleasant ones, without repressing or exaggerating information they may convey.Emotional intelligence is widely known to be a key component of effective leadership. The ability to be perceptively in tune with yourself and your emotions, as well as having sound situational awareness can be a powerful tool for leading a team. The act of knowing, understanding, and responding to emotions, overcoming stress in the moment, and being aware of how your words and actions affect others, is described as emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence for leadership can consist of these five attributes: self-awareness, self-management, empathy, relationship management, and effective communication.Self-Assessment: This can be defined as having the ability to recognize one’s own emotions, strengths, weaknesses, values and drivers and understanding their impact on others.Without reflection we cannot truly understand who we are, why we make certain decisions, what we are good at, and where we fall short. In order to reach your maximum potential, you must be confident in who you are, understanding the good with the bad. Those that have a strong understanding of who they are and what they want to work on, can improve themselves on a regular basis.Self-regulation: Also known as discipline. This involves controlling or redirecting our disruptive emotions and adapting to change circumstances in order to keep the team moving in a positive direction.Leaders can’t afford to lose their cool. Being calm is contagious, as is panic. When you take on a leadership role you can no longer afford to panic when things get stressful. When you stay calm and positive you can think and communicate more clearly with your team.Empathy and Compassion: Empathy is the ability to put yourself in someone else’s shoes and understand how they may feel or react to a certain situation. When one has empathy, the capacity to feel compassion is open. The emotion that we feel in response to suffering that motivates a desire to help.The more we can relate to others, the better we will become at understanding what motivates or upsets them.Relationship Management: You can’t make deep connections with others if you’re distracted. Many of us have families, other obligations, and a crazy to-do list, but building and maintaining healthy and productive relationships is essential to one’s ability to gain higher emotional intelligence.You must have the ability to communicate effectively and properly manage relationships to move a team of people in a desired direction.Effective Communication: In the SEAL teams you must do three things flawlessly to be an effective operator and team member: Move, shoot, and communicate. Communication being of the utmost importance. Studies show that effective communication is 7% the words we say and 93% tone and body language.Misunderstandings and lack of communication are usually the basis of problems between most people. Failing to communicate effectively in a workplace leads to frustration, bitterness, and confusion among employees. Effective communication can eliminate obstacles and encourage stronger workplace relationships. When employees know their role within a company and understand how they benefit the overall direction and vision, there is a sense of value and accomplishment. Good communication results in alignment and a shared sense of purpose.
Emotional intelligence is a powerful tool critical for exceeding goals, improving critical work relationships, and creating a healthy, productive workplace and organizational culture.Quality of life Quality of Life is tied to perception of ‘meaning’. The quest for meaning is central to the human condition, and we are brought in touch with a sense of meaning when we reflect on that which we have created, loved, believed in or left as a legacy. Frankl VE. ‘Man’s search for meaning.’ New York: Pocket Books, 1963Physical Being means being physically able to get around, my nutrition and the food I eat. Psychological wellbeing means being free of worry and stress, the mood I am usually in, Spiritual being means having hope for the future, My own ideas of right and wrong. Physical belonging means the house or apartment I live in, the neighbourhood I live in. Social belonging means Being close to people in my family, Having a spouse or special person. Community belonging means being able to get professional services (medical, social, etc, having enough money. Practical belonging means Doing things around my house, working at a job or going to school. Leisure belonging means Outdoor activities (walks, cycling, etc.), Indoor activities (TV, cycling, etc.) Growth belonging means improving physical health and fitness, being able to cope with changes in life.