Climate change, also known as global warming, is the rise in average surface temperatures on earth. a change in the pattern of weather, and related changes in oceans, land surfaces and ice sheets, occurring over time scales of decades or longer. For many years, human have released large amounts of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases traps heat in the atmosphere, which makes the Earth warmer. People are adding several types of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Most of this comes from burning fossil fuels to produce energy. while greenhouse gases build up, the climate changes and result in dangerous effects on human health and ecosystems.. A warmer climate can bring changes that can affect our water supplies, agriculture, power and transportation systems, the natural environment, and even our own health and safety.
Global warming has taken effect in the world over many years. It is the unusually rapid increase in the earth’s average surface temperature over the past century mainly due to the greenhouse gases released as people burn fossil fuels. Global warming is due to the enhancing greenhouse gases emission and build-up in the Earth’s environment. The gases that have an influence on the atmosphere are water vapor, carbon dioxide, dinitrogen-oxide, and methane. Researchers at NRDC global warming study reported that “Almost 30 percent of incoming sunlight is reflected back into space by bright surfaces like clouds and ice. In the other 70 percent, most is absorbed by the land and ocean, and the rest is absorbed by the atmosphere. The absorbed solar energy heats our planet. This absorption and radiation of heat by the atmosphere is beneficial for life on Earth”. Today, the atmosphere contains more greenhouse gas molecules, so more of the infrared energy emitted by the surface ends up being absorbed by the atmosphere. By increasing the concentration of greenhouse gases, we are making earth’s atmosphere a more efficient greenhouse.
Burning fossil fuels emits a number of air pollutants that are harmful to both the environment and public health.A number of studies have sought to quantify the health costs associated with fossil fuel-related air pollution. The National Academy of Sciences assessed “the costs of SO2, NOx, and particulate matter air pollution from coal and reported an annual cost of $62 billion for 2005 —approximately 3.2 cents per kilowatt-hour.”. A separate study estimated that the pollution costs from coal combustion, including the effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and ozone, was approximately $187 billion annually, or 9.3 cents per kWh”.The use of fossil fuels in transportation contributes almost 30 percent of all US global warming emissions, rivalling—and likely to surpass—the power sector. Of the many environmental and public health risks associated with burning fossil fuels, the most serious in terms of its universal and potentially irreversible consequences is global warming.” In 2014, approximately 78 percent of US global warming emissions were energy-related emissions of carbon dioxide. Of this, approximately 42 percent was from oil and other liquids, 32 percent from coal, and 27 percent from natural gas Non-fossil fuel energy generation technologies, like wind, solar, and geothermal, contributed less than 1 percent of the total energy related global warming emissions”.
Global climate change is a social and economic threats facing the planet .There are some climate changes that are unavoidable and nothing that can be done about it. For example, carbon dioxide can stay in the atmosphere for nearly a century, so earth will continue to warm in the future.Climate has cooled and warmed throughout the earth history for various reasons. Rapid warming like we see today is unusual in the history of our planet. Some of the factors that have an effect on climate, like volcanic eruptions and changes in the amount of solar energy. “Volcanic eruptions cause short-term climate changes and contribute to natural climate variability,” says Georgiy Stenchikov, a research professor with the Department of Environmental Sciences at Rutgers University. “Exploring effects of volcanic eruption allows us to better understand important physical mechanisms in the climate system that are initiated by volcanic forcing.” Volcanic eruptions are responsible for releasing molten rock, or lava, from deep within the Earth, forming new rock on the Earth’s surface. But eruptions also impact the atmosphere.The gases and dust particles thrown into the atmosphere during volcanic eruptions have influences on climate. Most of the particles spewed from volcanoes cool the planet by shading incoming solar radiation. The cooling effect can last for months to years depending on the characteristics of the eruption.
Volcanoes have also caused global warming over millions of years during times in Earth’s history when extreme amounts of volcanism occurred, releasing greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Research professor Georgiy Stenchikov says “The modeled temperature change is consistent with the temperature anomalies observed after the eruption,the pattern of winter warming following the volcanic eruption is practically identical to a pattern of winter surface temperature change caused by global warming. It shows that volcanic aerosols force fundamental climate mechanisms that play an important role in the global change process.”
Climate change doesn’t affect only global temperatures; it changes life itself. The majority of plants and animals live in habitats with specific climate conditions, so any change in the atmosphere can affect the plants and animals living there, as well as the makeup of the entire ecosystem.Climate is an important environmental influence on ecosystems. One recent Stanford University study found “that the main driver of climate change – could increase production of some crops, such as rice, soybean and wheat. However, the changing climate would affect the length and quality of the growing season and farmers could experience increasing damage to their crops, caused by a rising intensity of droughts, flooding or fires”. Changing climate affects ecosystems in a variety of ways. For instance, warming may force species to migrate to higher latitudes or higher elevations where temperatures are more conducive to their survival. Similarly, as sea level rises, saltwater intrusion into a freshwater system may force some key species to relocate or die, thus removing predators or prey that are critical in the existing food chain.
The global warming can also change the chemical composition of water, therefore the amount of oxygen in the water may decline, leaving pollution and salinity levels to increase. A study published by NCA global change stated that “more than 20% of world’s freshwater fish have become extinct, endangered, or threatened in the recent decades. A 20 inch sea level rise will cause large losses of mangroves in southwest Florida and communities of wet prairie will decline with the rise of that sea level. Increased salinity would occur from rising saltwater into the Everglades from the Florida Bay”. The increase in salinity would damage freshwater ecosystems that contain sawgrass and slough. Water is also undoubtedly a natural resource that is essential for the maintenance of ecosystem viability.
Precipitation will change dramatically along with other local climate conditions. Plants also have little ability to adapt to the changing climate. NCA global has studied and found that “nationwide, fossil fuel and nuclear power plants have been found to withdraw as much water as all farms and more than four times as much as all residences. More than 80 percent of this power plant cooling water originates in lakes and rivers, directly impacting local ecosystems and often competing with other uses, such as agriculture and recreation. As of 2008, about 20 percent of U.S. watersheds were experiencing water-supply stress. Power plants substantially contributed to the water stress in one-fifth of these watersheds.If global warming continues to grow- growing seasons, rainfall patterns, storms, and cycles of flood and drought will occur causing rapid changes in the range and distribution of plants worldwide. Scientists have proven that global warming is real and under way. The effects on the Earth’s ecosystem could be devastating. All plants and animals everywhere will be affected in some way.
The impacts of climate change include warming temperatures, changes in precipitation, increases in the frequency or intensity of some extreme weather events.These impacts threaten our health by affecting the food we eat, the water we drink, the air we breathe, and the weather we experience.Climate change and shifts in ecological conditions could support the spread of pathogens, parasites, and diseases, with potentially serious effects on human health, agriculture, and fisheries.Global warming will likely bring an increase in heat waves. Those could combine with the buildup of pollution , including ozone, a primary component of smog. Studies have shown high levels of pollution are linked to an increase in hospital admissions for cardiac problems.And a new study found higher temperatures and ozone may act together to worsen heart health.
The results show high temperatures in the summer months in a U.S. city are associated with a decrease in heart-rate variability, or how regular the time between heartbeats is, which acts as a measure of how well the heart is working. Low heart-rate variability is associated with an increased risk of death following a heart attack .”Air temperature and ozone may be bad for the heart because they influence the way the autonomic nervous system functions. The autonomic nervous system is a part of the central nervous system that helps the body adapt to its environment.” According to the American Heart Association. It regulates body functions, including the heart’s electrical activity and airflow into the lungs. Higher temperatures may also make the body more sensitive to toxins, such as ozone, researchers say.
Studies show allergies are on the rise in developed countries, including the United States, which could be due, in part, to rising carbon dioxide levels and warming temperatures. A 2005 study found that “plants are flowering earlier in the year, and total pollen production is increasing. A more recent study in Italy found that not only had pollen levels increased in the area, but the populations’ sensitivity to pollen had increased as well. While genetics plays a large role in all allergies, a longer and more intense pollen season could exacerbate symptoms”.Global warming may bring an increase in extreme events, including heat waves, floods and large storms, which could come with high death tolls. Heat and drought are amongst the deadliest natural disasters. A study that reviewed weather disasters in the United States since 1980 found “the top two killers were heat waves and the drought that comes with them.And heat waves may be getting worse”.
A study in 2007 found heat waves in Europe are nearly twice as long as they were 100 years ago. The region was struck with a mega heat wave in 2003 that killed about 70,000 people. Such mega heat waves could increase by a factor of 5 to 10 in the area, a recent study found.Global desertification could also boost growth of harmful bacteria in the ocean. Desert dust supplies iron to the ocean, which many marine organisms need to live. A study presented at this year’s meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in February found desert dust fueled the growth of Vibrios, a group of ocean bacteria that cause gastroenteritis and infectious diseases in people. “Within 24 hours of mixing weathered desert dust from Morocco with seawater samples, we saw a 10- to 1000-fold growth in Vibrios, including one strain that could cause eye, ear and open wound infections, and another strain that could cause cholera ,” study researcher Erin Lipp, a graduate student at the University of Georgia, said at the meeting. An increase in this type of bacteria could mean more people become ill as they are exposed to contaminated seafood. We need to act now before we can’t stop the effect. This is are life on the line.
In order to stop climate change , we need to look at what we are not doing and what we need to start doing. We can simply start at home. You can help by growing your own vegetables and fruits. We can help by planting trees. Growing your own plants and trees will help to reduce the greenhouse gas CO2 from the air. If you grow some of your own food, you will also help to prevent more CO2 from entering the air from the fossil-fuel-burning trucks, planes, and ships that transport are food. We can also help by Turn off lights, TVs, computers, when you not using them.Unplugging any electronic items you can turn on with a remote uses power even when it is off.
Appliances with a digital clock or a power adapter also suck power.Walking or riding your bike instead of taking a car everywhere will help reduce fossil -fuel-burning . Even a 2-mile car trip puts 2 pounds of CO2 into the atmosphere! If you must ride, it’s best to carpool. Carpooling cuts down on the number of cars and vehicle son the road. Fewer cars means there is less carbon and other gasses and pollution getting into the air. This protects the environment by keeping the air, water, and land cleaner.why not carpool it helps reduce traffic, so that means you can get home faster. Another thing we can do is recycle.There are many good reasons for adding recycling to your routine, ranging from a personal level to a global advantage.
Recycling helps reduce energy consumption. You can play a big part in preventing climate change by simply re-evaluating your household, office, or commercial activities and identifying areas you can reduce, reuse, or recycle. Recycling helps to reduce the pollution caused by waste. Recycling reduces the need for raw materials. The process it takes to extract new materials would only result in more greenhouse gas emissions, but also consumes more energy compared to processing recycled materials.Try to avoid disposable items such as paper plates, cups, and utensils. Even something as simple as using recycling containers to sort your waste makes a difference. According to a 2011 Ipsos Public Affairs survey “only half of adults recycle daily. Another third of respondents said they recycle less frequently than that,and a full 13 percent revealed that they never recycle.” another study covering issues involving climate change, energy and the environment, found that about three-in-ten Americans (28%) say their local community’s social norms strongly encourage recycling and re-use. About a fifth (22%) say most people in their communities don’t really encourage recycling; the remaining half live in places where, they say, norms around recycling are somewhere in the middle.We the people need to take more steps to help stop climate change . Recycling is one of the biggest and important weapons to use to fight against global warming and climate change.
In conclusion, we need to take part and try to stop global warming and other effects on climate change. If the earth’s temperatures continue to rise in the future, living things on earth would become extinct due to the high temperatures. If humans contribute to control global warming, this world would be cooler and the high temperatures we currently have would decrease. If everybody as one take stand and try to end most of the climate changes that are occurring, this world would be a safer place to live on.