In this project, I attend to select Bank of China (BOCHK) for studying. This company has the unique advantages of RMB market in Hong Kong. We can know the methods to make as much as profits in RMB market via studying the RMB-related banking business of Bank of China in Hong Kong. In addition, Bank of China maintained their market leadership in the RMB-related banking business in Hong Kong. “During the year, the Group’s net interest income increased by 3.9% to HK$20,157 million as the Group’s average interest-earning assets grew by 7.3% to HK$1,006,440 million. This growth was achieved by the expansion of lending business and the increase in average deposits from customers, banks and financial institutions.” (BOCHK 2008) In 2008, the Group’s substantial growth of RMB deposits was 58.5%, accounted for the largest market share. In the RMB credit card business, the company is also amongst the top of Hong Kong that card number and card household spending volume increased 24.6% and 49.8% respectively. More withdrawals of BOCHK were extended to Hong Kong yuan railway stations along the automatic teller machines in oreder to serve the customers better. During the year, the company also acts as the three major banks in the Mainland to issue renminbi bonds in Hong Kong lead manager, book-keeping line and distribution lines. Also, three banks issued bonds a total of up to 90 billion yuan. In addition, BOCHK have good communication and cooperation with other banks in China for preparing to provide customers with cross-border wealth management services in the Mainland. The first half of 2009 is expected to be in the designated branches of Bank of China launched the mainland. Until the end of 2008, the Group’s wealth management over a number of customers was increased by 21.5%. The BOCHK through new business opportunities, such as the Beijing Olympics, launched a series of new cards to expand related businesses through new business opportunities, such as the Beijing Olympics .In addition, the company introduced the “CUP BOC Credit Card” with China Union Pay in December 2008. As Hong Kong’s economy is export-oriented, nature of Hong Kong’s economic outlook depends critically on the development of the global economy in 2009. Because a high degree of uncertainty is still hovering in the global financial markets, the business environment is expected to be very difficult in the coming year or even longer. “The Central People’s Government agrees to expand the scope of RMB business in Hong Kong is another major step in the reform and liberalisation of RMB. The expansion of RMB business in a steady and orderly manner is conducive to further strengthening the economic integration between Hong Kong and the Mainland of China, and providing greater convenience to the people of both places amid the ever increasing cross-border flows. The closer financial cooperation between Hong Kong and the Mainland will also help enhance Hong Kong’s status as an international financial center.” (BOCHK 2005) We have seen that GDP growth was shrinking, unemployment rate was rising and the negative wealth effects were appearing. Nevertheless, Hong Kong is still in a relatively advantageous position. This is because the company received the full support of the Mainland, while the Mainland in terms of both the economic and financial strength compared with other regions is relatively stable. The central government published in Renminbi 4-trillion stimulus packages in November 2008 and the subsequent launch of a number of policies and measures to stimulate the economy, so the Hong Kong economy and its financial services sector will bring new opportunities. “The Group is a leading listed commercial banking group in Hong Kong. With over 280 branches and 470 ATMs and other delivery channels in Hong Kong, the Group offers a comprehensive range of financial products and services to retail and corporate customers. BOCHK is one of the three note issuing banks in Hong Kong. In addition, the Group now has 19 branches and sub-branches in the Mainland of China to provide cross-border banking services to customers in Hong Kong and the Mainland. BOCHK is appointed by the People’s Bank of China as the Clearing Bank for Renminbi (RMB) business in Hong Kong.” (BOCHK 2009) Therefore, Bank of China can get the benefits in RMB market through different RMB services and products in Hong Kong. Ensuring the RMB business in the market leadership, Bank of China hopes the upcoming yuan trade settlement pilot plans to open one of the main windows of opportunity which allows the Guangdong Province, the Yangtze River Delta between Hong Kong to use the yuan as a trade settlement currency. The purpose is to expand the Group’s RMB banking business. In addition BOCHK developed the RMB remittance and foreign exchange business actively and improved its comprehensive renminbi services to maintain its leading position.Consequently, this project can help Bank of China to maintain the leading position in the RMB-related banking business market in Hong Kong and increase the income from RMB-related banking business of Bank of China.
The critical and main factors for Bank of China to grasp the opportunity of the RMB trade settlement pilot scheme in Hong Kong. According to different RMB-related banking business, these factors can clearly identify what actions should be taken by Bank of China to boost the incomes and profits from the RMB market in Hong Kong. For maintain the market leadership in Hong Kong’s existing RMB banking business, Bank of China should develop and provide diversify RMB-related services and products base on the following research objectives. Measure preceived image of various HK banks Evaluate the popularity of RMB as transaction Obtain people’s perception of the prospect of RMB Measure the acceptance level of RMB credit card Calculate the ammount the behavior of RMB cardholder spending Identify which is the ideal location of ATM for RMB cash withdrawal Evaluate which is the best method to promote RMB bonds Evaluate which new product and service are valuable to customers
Critical review of relevant literature
“This includes raising the exchange limit between RMB and Hong Kong dollar per person per transaction, lifting the credit limit of RMB cards issued by banks in Hong Kong and relaxing the RMB remittance limit imposed on Hong Kong residents” (Xinhuanet 2005) I think that Hong Kong as an international financial center, the central government attaches great importance to the role. Under the first phase of the arrangement, four pairs of banks in Hong Kong Renminbi (RMB) business has opened. RMB deposits increased from a stable, smooth transactions and a stable exchange rate has to prove that the yuan business is very successful. In the SAR Government’s proposal based on the central government has approved in principle to expand renminbi business in Hong Kong on the range. This includes increasing the renminbi yuan and the Hong Kong dollar per person per transaction limit, in the abolition of the credit limit of RMB bank cards issued to strengthen to the RMB remittance limit imposed by Hong Kong residents to relax and expand Hong Kong’s RMB settlement to designated merchants departments, and allows you to specify an invoice Hong Kong to open RMB cash deposits accounts and allow the RMB deposits one-way exchange of foreign currency into Hong Kong dollars. “The Individual Visit Scheme for Chinese mainland residents to visit Hong Kong has gone a long way towards boosting the local retail and job markets. Last year Hong Kong received a total of 4.2 million Chinese mainland visitors under the Scheme, bringing additional tourism receipts of around 6.5 billion HK dollars.” (Xinhua News Agency 2005) Moreover, the central government also agreed in principle to operate in Hong Kong of a new RMB business for consumption in Guangdong Province to Hong Kong residents check issued by a limited number of yuan. Central government will soon implement the various arrangements and a formal announcement. I believe that these new measures will become an all-round development to promote Hong Kong’s financial industry milestone. “Fllowing approval from the State Council, the People’s Bank of China (PBoC) has agreed to provide clearing arrangements for banks in Hong Kong to conduct personal renminbi (RMB) business on a trial basis. The scope of RMB business to be offered will be confined to transactions that facilitate personal spending but do not involve investment and other capital account transactions.The scope of RMB business to be offered on a trial basis includes the following four areas are Deposit-taking, Exchange, Remittances and Renminbi Cards.” (Hong Kong Monetary Authority 2003) Moreover, this article analysis and express the Hong Kong’s offshore RMB business. According to RMB business in Hong Kong banks on a trial basis, it is marking the development of the banking sector is taking an important step forward. It promotes and facilitates the economic integration between Mainland and Hong Kong for visiting and spending money. I believe that the Hong Kong banking sector will seize this opportunity and provide different RMB services to the public in the near future. “The People’s Bank of China (PBOC), China’s central bank, has agreed to provide clearing arrangements for banks in Hong Kong to conduct personal renminbi (RMB) business on a trial basis.” (Xinhua 2003) According to the base of RMB business in Hong Kong bank, this opened up a new channel for the flow of renminbi funds between the Mainland and Hong Kong base on the banking system. Not only Hong Kong’s banking sector meets the needs of the market and the general public, but also it develops a new business in order to consolidate the advantages of Hong Kong banking sector and enhance the competitiveness of the banking sector. For the long-term development, this helps to maintain the Hong Kong’s status as an international financial center of great significance. The HKMA will work with the People’s Bank to assist in the early implementation of the Hong Kong banking sector and the introduction of renminbi business. “Recently, the People’s Bank of China and the Hong Kong Monetary Authority signed a Memorandum of Cooperation concerning the operation of personal Renminbi (RMB) business in Hong Kong. This marked a major progress in financial business under the CEPA framework. Fostering the development of RMB business in Hong Kong, the memo would lay the foundation for Hong Kong to become an offshore RMB centre, enhancing Hong Kong’s role as an international financial centre.” (Wing Fu, Hui 2004) This article mentions the offshore markets and offshore financial centers. Financial services can be on land or at sea. Initially, the land in these two different is that those businesses issued within the country’s currency under the control of attention and containing the country’s judicial jurisdiction, but does not cover those offshore business jurisdiction. Then came off-shore bank in New York and Tokyo, but the gap narrowed only the applicability of the issue of the country’s jurisdiction. (International Bank in the two cities is allowed to conduct foreign currency business in their country of residence without being subject to the provisions of these countries, as long as the isolation of these offshore operations ashore.) Offshore financial business is originated in Europe. The term “European currency” includes all the usual off-shore money. Initially, it refers to the dollar in Europe, the European Japanese yen, British pound in Europe, Eurofranc, as well as major European currencies has been replaced in Europe, such as the German mark, French franc and Dutch guilder. As the offshore business is not in the currency within the territory of the country, nor was put under the jurisdiction of the State, its operation does not require state approval. But there are some prerequisites for the currency to become an international currency must be used for international pricing, billing, purchase and payment. That is why the U.S. dollar has remained so far a major offshore currency. At present, almost all countries there are an offshore business and offshore markets. Strictly speaking, all transactions in foreign currency-denominated offshore business, is a kind of offshore markets. To become an offshore financial center, we need more criteria. Only those operators that there is a vast, but also provides a comprehensive range of services and high turnover, but also as a major offshore currencies intermediaries, it can be regarded as an offshore financial center. “While the global in the past two or three decades, efforts to promote offshore business, and only a few places in line as an offshore financial center status. Among them, London, New York and Tokyo is the largest of the three, while the Luxembourg, Zurich, Frankfurt, Hong Kong, Singapore, Sydney and Bahrain are secondary regional offshore financial center. This shows that to become an offshore financial center needs a number of pre-articles, including political and social stability, economic freedom and free flow of information, rule of law and sound legal system, administrative efficiency, supply, infrastructure modernization and the relative a better location. For the offshore renminbi business in Hong Kong, although the memorandum of cooperation will promote the development of offshore renminbi business in Hong Kong, but it is not enough to make Hong Kong a complete offshore yuan market, they fear to become the yuan offshore centers. “Hong Kong provides Mainland enterprises with an efficient access to international capital through its banking, equity and debt markets. Nevertheless, the cross-boundary capital flows have by no means been one-way. Hong Kong’s banks have maintained a strong presence in the Mainland.” (HKGOV. 2003) According to the Basic Law, the Hong Kong dollar legal tender in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (implied RMB in Hong Kong is a “foreign currency”). “The banks are allowed to run four aspects of RMB services namely deposit-taking, currency exchange, remittances and credit-card services.” (China Daily 2003) These new arrangements for Hong Kong from the Mainland regulations control the free operation of the RMB business (mainly reflected by the banks to freely determined deposit rates and immunities of the minimum reserve requirements). This makes Hong Kong banks to conduct renminbi offshore business standard. In fact, the RMB business in Hong Kong has been operating there for a long time, but only in cash transactions. While the turnover is expected to quite large, it can only be regarded as non-recurring or “gray market.” However, the signing of a memorandum of cooperation will bring quality and quantity changes. The former refers to the regularization of the existing business, while the latter concerned about the introduction of a variety of services, including deposits, remittances, foreign exchange and credit cards. These changes prompted an offshore yuan market in Hong Kong. Expansion of renminbi deposits of great significance. “All sectors of HongKong welcomed the announcement Tuesday by the People’s Bank of China regarding the expansion of the scope of renminbi (RMB) business in Hong Kong. These measures will further facilitate cross-border spending by mainland and Hong Kong residents and promote economic integration between the two sides. The agreement of the State Council to expand RMB business in Hong Kong helps strengthen Hong Kong’s role as an international financial center.” (Xinhua 2005) In the past, the yuan is basically limited to payment or as a transaction medium. Retail spending in the Mainland demand or for commercial purposes has been held by residents of the major media yuan. With the introduction of deposit-taking business, the RMB will expand its functions, has become a store of assets, greatly stimulate the demand for money. At the higher interest rates and expectations of RMB appreciation, the renminbi deposits will be particularly attractive. Limit the expansion of the RMB exchange rate 20000 6000 yuan, will help to strengthen this effect. Remittance and credit card business also has considerable potential. So far, the money changers offer lower fees and charges “underground money” so that they can capture most of the business. Nevertheless, the introduction of renminbi deposits, allowing banks to directly debit customer deposits account for remittances, which will enhance the competitiveness of the banks. Banks will also benefit from increased credit / debit cards, credit limit, and a license Mainland visitors in Hong Kong, ATM withdrawals. Under the new arrangements, Hong Kong will establish a RMB clearing system. “The expanded RMB clearing services will be launched in two stages. The first stage of service, to be introduced on 5 December 2005, includes the clearing services for the newly expanded scope of deposits, exchange, remittance and bank cards. The second stage, due to be launched on 6 March 2006, covers the clearing services of RMB cheques, together with the introduction of the RSS.” (BOCHK 2005/11) In the absence of freely convertible and the lack of overseas settlement facilities, the yuan has not yet become a “real” foreign currency. Now, Bank of China will be selected as the RMB clearing bank. The bank will be the Bank of China branch in Shenzhen to open a RMB settlement account, and other banks to participate in personal RMB business clearing and settlement services. Through the China National Foreign Exchange Trading Center and the provision of relevant information, it will also provide money transfer services, including remittance diversion, position covering, and the sale of yuan. All the measures marked the beginning of Hong Kong to become yuan offshore centers. Through the creation of the world’s first offshore renminbi settlement system, Hong Kong will get a better location as a basis for moving towards yuan offshore centers. However, Hong Kong an offshore yuan market, at present there is no uniform standard, not to mention the renminbi offshore center. Relative to other currencies of the overseas operations, the RMB business in the portfolio on the client and there were essential differences. RMB business in Hong Kong is limited to individual customers, only deposits of Hong Kong residents (holders of Hong Kong Identity Card), does not include commercial entities and non-residents. Offshore business in other currencies is based on target companies and institutions, as well as non-residents as the main customers. This means that renminbi business in Hong Kong is the only retail scale. In Hong Kong is limited to the above four operations, but the overseas markets against other currencies can engage in a number of other private businesses, including loans, securities and derivatives. From the state government’s control, Hong Kong’s offshore yuan market is limited. Bank of China, Hong Kong must also obtain consent to conduct RMB business. The reason is not yet fully convertible yuan and the current arrangement is preferential treatment in Hong Kong. In fact, while Hong Kong’s offshore yuan market, steady growth, but in the yuan to become fully convertible, Hong Kong is to become an offshore renminbi still a long way from the center. Hong Kong has great potential to become a renminbi offshore center, because Hong Kong has a bright future as the renminbi offshore center. “Hong Kong is on the path to becoming a fully-fledged offshore centre for the yuan, with full convertibility to eventually follow. It would be good for Hong Kong if it could become an offshore yuan market. As the yuan is now being recognised in many countries, many foreign countries might wish to set up Hong Kong bank accounts for yuan transactions. Many could also see the benefits of setting up offices in Hong Kong as our legal and financial services can assist them doing business in China.The main immediate beneficiary of the agreement will be the bank selected to establish a yuan clearing centre, which will channel yuan from Hong Kong to China. This would allow an outlet for the massive amounts of mainland currency circulating in Hong Kong.” (HKMA 2003) First, Yuan could become a major international currency, and thereby also become offshore transactions in major currencies. At present, the number of surrounding areas yuan in circulation has been increasing. Some commercial banks and the central banks use RMB as a reserve currency. In the 2002 World Cup in South Korea bank’s currency exchange, the yuan has been given to the U.S. dollar, Japanese yen and the euro the same position. The Bank of Korea further pointed out that the four major international currencies and the currency is the reserve currency. All aspects of development reflect the maturity of the renminbi as an international currency status. Frist, China’s economy is expanding rapidly. In 2002, China has the world’s sixth largest GDP countries in the world and the economy of Southeast Asia has become an engine of growth. By 2010, gross domestic product is expected to more than double that of 2000 and advancing to the world’s first 3. To further advance to the second position is possible in 2015. China’s growing economy will support the renminbi become an international currency. Second, RMB enjoy a higher yuan and improve its international reputation. The RMB exchange rate has remained stable, as a unified exchange rate system was developed in the 1990s. During the Asian financial crisis, the Chinese Government didn’t choose to devaluate RMB in order to prevent the competitive devaluation. This year, China has not succumbed to the expected appreciation of RMB which further demonstrate their attention to the interests of all parties and stability of commitments. In addition, China has 3,000 billion in international reserves, which is the second time the world’s largest international reserves, to maintain exchange rate stability and improve the international credibility play a major role. Third, For the China’s banking system still have a problem, the Administration proposed a comprehensive reform, including the injection of bad debt write-off, market, the introduction of foreign capital, in order to strengthen corporate governance, which is widely expected to take effect in the reform, the RMB will be fully convertible . Second, the overall international trade position of China is estimated to maintain balance or slight surplus. Also, this will help to develop Hong Kong as the largest offshore center for the renminbi.An international division of labor with China was produced by the economic forces of globalization, as the world’s major factory, a huge number of Chinese imports of raw materials and components and export finished products to the United States and European markets. This has led to China’s trade deficit to surge in Asia, especially East Asia such as Taiwan, Singapore, South Korea and Japan. In the first 9 months of this year, China’s trade deficit reached USD39.27 billion U.S. dollars in Asia, while the trade surplus with the United States and Europe, and USD9.67 to reach USD40.89 billion. In this mode, the large supply of an offshore yuan market will appear in East Asia. On trade in services, the mainland tourists going abroad has been more than 16 million U.S. dollars, double-digit growth, but also the main destination is East Asia. This is another yuan source of supply. Thus, many East Asian cities to conduct RMB business in Hong Kong will become the center of East Asia. Since the outbreak of the Asian financial crisis, Hong Kong’s status as an international financial center has declined, which is reflected that the bank reduce the number of contraction of external assets and liabilities of banks, offshore lending business contraction, and refused to foreign exchange transactions. However, Hong Kong started offshore renminbi business in Hong Kong would mean the development of new business in another currency early. Hong Kong can operate RMB products, and the yuan to become the world’s major offshore centers when the yuan to become fully convertible. By that time, the size of Hong Kong’s offshore operations will be strengthened, and to enhance Hong Kong as an international financial center.
Research design descriptors
The degree to which the research question has been crystallized Exploratory study Formal study The method of data collection Monitoring Communication Study The power of the researcher to produce effects in the variables under study Experimental Ex post facto The purpose of the study Reporting Descriptive Causal-Explanatory Causal-Predictive The time dimension Cross-sectional Longitudinal The topical scope-breadth and depth-of the study Case Statistical study The research environment Field setting Laboratory research Simulation The participants’ perceptional awareness of the research activity Actual routine Modified routine Data collection method Self-administered survey The research survey will be designed to collect the data for market in Hong Kong. This research survey is basically separated into five aspects of RMB-related banking business which includes the RMB deposits, RMB credit card, RMB cash withdrawal service, RMB bonds and RMB product and service innovations base on the consumer behavior, demands and interest. Also, this research is implemented by Internet survey. Telephone Interview In additional, the same research survey will be implemented by telephone interview. The interviewee can give their ideas and suggest of RMB-related services and products of Bank of China via telephone interview. It can collect the useful ideas from target customers. Face to face interview The group interview will be hold to collect the direct opinions of RMB-related business. Bank of China can test the response of new RMB-related services and products from the focus group directly. It is very important part for Bank of China to adjust and refine the RMB-related services and products. Sampling Method The convenience sampling will be used in this research. It is because convenience is the non-profitability sampling which is lower cost, more feasibility, limited objective, better time manner and no need to generalize. Furthermore, the efficient and useful RMB-related research should be calculated and collected by a huge quantity of interviewee because of each people almost use banking services in Hong Kong nowadays. Sample size In this research, about 180 interviewees will be contacted by self-administered survey, telephone Interview and face to face interview.
ID Task name Start Finish Jan 2010 Feb 2010 Mar 2010 Apr 2010 May 2010 Jun 2010 Jul 2010 1 Preparation of final research proposal 10/01/10 30/01/10 2 Brainstorming 20/01/10 15/02/10 3 Interview 15/02/10 15/03/10 4 Data collection 16/03/10 30/03/10 5 Data analysis 01/04/10 15/04/10 6 First draft of research report 16/04/10 01/05/10 7 Research report presentation 01/05/10 14/05/10 8 Second draft of research report 15/05/10 30/05/10 9 Final draft of research report 01/06/10 25/06/10 10 Submission of research project report 25/06/10 10/07/10